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The Many Colours of Menstruation

You may be used to seeing your period every month, but it can still surprise you when it shows up and it’s a different colour.  Bright red, dark red, brown, orange or even black… are these normal?  And what do they mean?? 

Let’s go through the different colours in the period rainbow, and help you understand what they mean.

Bright Red Period Blood

Typically found during the first days of your period, or on heavy days, bright red blood indicates that the blood is fresh and flowing quickly.  It may be free of clots or have some clotting depending on how heavy the flow is. 

Dark Red Period Blood

Dark red blood is blood that has been stagnant in the uterus for a little while.  Often the result of lying down and sleeping overnight, the blood has been partially oxidized resulting in a darker colour.  For many women this darker blood is also found during the last days of their period when blood flow is slower, allowing for more time for the blood to oxidize and darken. 

Brown Period Blood

Brown blood is a continuation of the oxidation process that leads to dark red period blood.  It has just been sitting stagnant for longer.  Often associated with very light flow, brown spotting often occurs at the very start of the period, before flow really gets going, or at the very end when flow is slowing down to just a few drops. 

Black Period Blood

This one freaks women out, but it’s just a step further than brown blood.  Often having an almost coffee ground like appearance, black blood is more fully oxidized than brown blood.  It’s nothing to be worried about, unless it happens all the time, in which case you should look at having an ultrasound done. 

Pink Period Blood

Pink period blood usually occurs at the beginning or the end of your period, when the flow is light or spotting.  Pink blood results from the menstrual blood mixing with cervical fluid and vaginal secretions, diluting the colour.  This pink colour is often also seen during ovulation spotting, when cervical fluid production is at its peak. 

Orange Period Blood

A variation on pink period blood, orange period blood also occurs when menstrual blood mixes with cervical fluid or vaginal secretions.  It can occur during ovulation, implantation and when period flow is light. 

Grey Period Blood

Any shade of grey is a reason to see your doctor.  Grey blood, or discharge could be associated with bacterial vaginosis, especially when there is an unpleasant odour associated with the discharge.  So get this one checked out!

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

The Most Important Test for Preventing Miscarriage

Pregnancy is one of the most significant women’s health topics – we spend our teens and early 20’s avoiding pregnancy, and many of us spend our 30’s and early 40’s trying to get pregnant.  And once a woman is pregnant, we want to ensure a healthy pregnancy with the outcome of a happy, healthy baby.

Lack of Lab Testing

In Ontario, where I run my women’s health practice, the standard of care is for women to receive only very basic testing when they discover they are pregnant.  Women are screened for sexually transmitted illnesses (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis), public health testing (rubella), blood type and Rh factor.  But few women are screened for one of the most common, and preventable, causes of miscarriage – one that can be easily identified and often has no symptoms. 

Comprehensive Testing

The one test I insist all women in my practice have at the first sign of pregnancy is a comprehensive thyroid panel.  The thyroid gland, sitting in your throat near your voice box, is one of the most important hormone producing gland in your body.  Thyroid hormones are essential for metabolism – creating energy in our cells to meet the demands of our body.  In pregnancy we need to be able to make a lot of energy – making a whole new human is hard work! 

In pregnancy our requirements for thyroid hormones increase – and if our body isn’t able to meet that demand, the result can be early pregnancy loss (miscarriage).  We can identify women who may be at risk for this by running a simple TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) test and treating women who fall outside the normal range with thyroid replacement hormones during pregnancy. 

But TSH isn’t the only important thyroid test for a pregnant woman.  Testing thyroid antibodies, especially anti TPO antibody is also essential for preventing miscarriage.  Thyroid autoimmune disease is the most common autoimmune disease in women who are in their childbearing years – impacting up to 15% of women.  Many of these women have no symptoms of thyroid disease and their TSH levels are totally normal.

Having TPO antibodies however, is a major risk factor for miscarriage.  There is a strong association with TPO antibodies and miscarriage, preterm delivery, and other negative outcomes in pregnancy (such as low birth weight and smaller head circumference). 

Getting Tested

Despite all the evidence, known to doctors since the 1990s, comprehensive thyroid testing still isn’t available as a screening test for most women in early pregnancy. But that shouldn’t stop you from seeking it out. Available from your Naturopathic Doctor for under a hundred dollars, this test could make all the difference in your pregnancy. And since this cause of miscarriage is completely treatable, I encourage you to have the test done as soon as possible after you discover you are pregnant. Miscarriage is all too common already, I don’t want any more women to have miscarriages that could be prevented.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.


Going Grey

Purple, blue, red, pink – bright vibrant hair colours are all the rage these days!  But grey?  Is anyone really excited to see those grey hairs popping up?  Why are they there, and what can we do about it?  The answers may surprise you.

Aging Grey

Our hair follicles contain cells that make pigment, called melanin.  This melanin gives your hair its distinct colour.  As we age, these pigment cells start to die off and new hairs grow in lighter – in an array of shades from grey to silver and white.  Once that pigment cell is dead, it won’t come back – the hairs growing from that follicle will never be coloured again. 

And aging is inevitable.  Dermatologists often quote the 50-50-50 Rule – 50% of the population will be 50% grey by 50 years of age.  However, it differs for everyone.  It seems that white people tend to start going grey in their 30s, Asians in their late 30s and black people in their mid-40s. 

Grandma Was Great, and Grey

But it’s mostly your genes that determine how early you go grey – and how quickly!  (Thanks Mum.)  If your parents went grey early, it’s more likely that you will too.

Premature Greying

Genetic or otherwise, premature greying happens.  If you go grey 10 years earlier than the average person does, feel free to complain about it!  You can consider it premature if your hair is going grey before:

  • 20 years old if you’re white
  • 25 years old if you’re Asian
  • 30 years old if you’re black

Contributing to the Grey

There are health concerns that can contribute to grey hair.  If you’re convinced it’s not all in your genes, look at these factors to see if they are adding to your silver streaks.

  1. Lack of vitamin B12 – common in vegans and vegetarians
  2. Vitamin D deficiency – common in northern climates, especially during the winter months
  3. Low calcium – from poor intake or a parathyroid dysfunction, low levels are associated with premature greying
  4. Low iron levels – more common in women and vegans and vegetarians, low levels can contribute to greying and to hair loss
  5. Thyroid hormone imbalance – more common in women, impacting up to 1 in 6 women
  6. Vitiligo – an autoimmune disease that destroys pigment making cells
  7. Copper imbalance – copper can boost the production of melanin, the compound that gives hair its colour.  But don’t just start taking it – copper needs to be carefully balanced with zinc or it can cause mood swings, depression and anxiety.
  8. Smoking – smokers are much more likely to go grey before 30 years of age – 2 ½ times more likely!

What To Do About Grey Hair

Dye it or don’t, but whatever you do don’t pluck it!  Or at least don’t make a habit of it!  Repeatedly plucking hairs can damage the hair follicle and result in kinkier, less healthy hair growing in. 

Hair is made mostly of protein, so foods that are high in proteins are essential for healthy hair.  Nutrients like iron, calcium, zinc, vitamin D, omega 3 fatty acids, B12 and B6 have also been found to support hair health.  Some vegetarians and vegans, and people with digestive issues, may have difficulty getting enough of these from their food and might want to look at taking targeted supplements. 

Eating every 4-5 hours may also help to support hair health.  Hair is not considered an essential tissue by the body, and research suggests that if we go too long between meals the energy available to non-essential tissues could be reduced and could impact hair health. 

Consider having your nutrient levels tested to see if they are negatively impacting your healthy hair. And meet with a Naturopathic Doctor to discuss your diet if you feel like it could use a boost as well!

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Hormones and Hair Loss

One of my favourite/ least favourite stories to tell is how I became a Naturopathic Doctor.  I was in my late teens, finishing my last year of high school, when I began losing my hair.  What was happening to my thick full hair?? It was falling out more and more, but my doctors assured me I “still had lots of hair”, as if that was what mattered.  I was not taken seriously – whether because I was a teen girl, or because my doctors didn’t see how much hair I was losing every day, it didn’t matter.  My hair loss was destroying my self confidence and I was convinced it meant something was wrong.

A Familiar Story

Of course, it did mean something was wrong.  For myself, it was a combination of low iron (which I talk about as a root cause of hair loss) and significant stress.  And this loss of trust in the conventional medical community led me to change my plans from becoming a Medical Doctor to becoming a Naturopathic Doctor.

I’d like to think my story is unique.  But I’ve come to see that it is not.  Many women (and teen girls) come to my practice with similar stories.  Being dismissed and told that their hair loss is not a significant symptom.  Being told that it is normal.  Or having little to no testing done to identify the underlying cause of hair loss. 

I may not be able to help all of the millions of women who experience hair loss, but I hope by sharing my story, and some of my expertise, that I may be able to impact some. 

Hormones and Hair Loss

Hair loss can happen to a woman at any age, and while it may be more common as we get older, that doesn’t mean that it is a normal occurrence at any age.  Keep in mind – common is not the same as normal!  In this article I’m going to focus on the hormonal causes of hair loss, some of the most common causes I see in my practice.  In order to properly diagnose your hair loss, be sure to use the Hair Loss Lab Testing Checklist and get to the root cause. 

Thyroid Imbalances

Your thyroid is a small but mighty gland located in your neck, near your voice box.  The primary role of the thyroid is to encourage energy production by the body.  When the thyroid isn’t functioning optimally, there can be consequences throughout the body, including the hair.  Hair loss can occur with too little thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) or too much (hyperthyroidism).  A condition known as alopecia areata is also linked to autoimmune thyroid disease, or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

Conventional testing for thyroid function is not always adequate to identify an underlying thyroid condition.  If you suspect your thyroid may be contributing to your hair loss, get a comprehensive thyroid panel completed with your Naturopathic Doctor, functional medicine doctor or MD.  This test will look beyond TSH and test for free T3, free T4 and thyroid antibodies. 

Testosterone Overload

One of the most common causes of hair loss in women and men, high levels of testosterone can lead to hair loss, especially at the frontal hairline and the top of the head.  While typically thought of as a man’s hormone, women produce testosterone as well.  The real issue isn’t testosterone specifically, but a metabolite of testosterone called dihydrotestosterone, or DHT.  This form of testosterone is much more powerful than regular testosterone and binds strongly to hair follicles on the scalp, face, back and chest – leading to hair loss on the scalp, and acne on the face, back and chest. 

Many women can have lab testing for testosterone that looks normal, but DHT levels may still be high.  It is important to have both these hormones tested, especially if you have other signs of high androgens such as acne or irregular periods, or have been diagnosed with PCOS

Low Progesterone

Progesterone is a damn important hormone.  The natural balancer to both estrogen and testosterone, many hormonal imbalances are a result of low progesterone.  Progesterone is able to block testosterone from accessing receptors, preventing it from leading to hair loss.  Progesterone is also the reason women’s hair grows so thick and healthy during pregnancy! 

The three times in a woman’s life when low progesterone are most common are:

  1. If she is using the birth control pill.  On the pill you do not ovulate, and do not produce progesterone (the synthetic progestins in the pill are not the same thing)
  2. If she has PCOS and does not ovulate
  3. As she ages.  Progesterone production drops through your 30s and many women in their 40s are not making enough to balance their estrogen and testosterone levels.  Women in menopause make hardly any progesterone at all. 

Stress is another common cause of progesterone deficiency, as the body will steal all the available progesterone to make cortisol, our body’s main stress hormone. 

Insulin and Blood Sugar Imbalances

No hormone acts on the body in isolation.  They all influence each other.  Insulin, the hormone produced to encourage our cells to take up sugar and regulate the levels of sugar in our blood, can have an impact on hair loss when it is imbalanced.

When your diet is too high in refined or processed carbohydrates, your cells can become resistant to insulin, causing higher circulating levels of blood sugar.  When this occurs your ovaries can become resistant as well, an imbalance which disrupts healthy ovulation and causes your ovaries to produce more testosterone and DHT. 

Stress and Cortisol

You may pull your hair out when you are stressed, or stress may cause it to fall out.  Stress can cause increased or decreased cortisol levels, both of which can contribute to hair loss.  Excessive stress can also cause your hair to enter its telogen, or hair fall phase, prematurely.  This will often result in hair loss 2-3 months after the stressful event. 

High cortisol will also deplete progesterone and allow for more testosterone to bind to hair follicles, which can further exacerbate hair loss.  If you have significant stress, consider what changes need to be made to help lessen your stress, and explore whether cortisol testing may help to reverse and resolve your hair loss.

Stopping Hair Loss

Understanding the hormonal causes of hair loss for women is just the first step.  To get to the root cause of your hair loss comprehensive testing is almost always necessary.  The problem is that many doctors don’t take hair loss seriously (I know from my personal experience!).  You may need to pay out of pocket to get the level of testing that you need, but in the end, that knowledge can help you put an end to your hair loss and allow you to regain not only your hair, but balance your hormones and give you your quality of life back.

Selected References

Ohnemus U, Uenalan M, Inzunza J, Gustafsson JA, Paus R. The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endoc Rev. 206;27(6):677-706. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16877675

Ohnemus U, Uenalan M, Inzunza J, Gustafsson JA, Paus R. The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endoc Rev. 206;27(6):677-706. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16877675

Randall VA. Androgens and hair growth. Dermatol Ther. 2008;21(5):314-28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18844710

Randall VA. Hormonal regulation of hair follicles exhibits a biological paradox. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007;18(2):274-85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17379547

Levy LL, Emer JJ. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives. Int J Womens Health. 2013;5:541-556. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769411/

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem. 

Banishing Breast Tenderness

A woman’s relationship with her breasts can be… complicated.  I should know. I had comic book heroine sized breasts up until a breast reduction after weaning my youngest child.  At that time breast tenderness was just a part of my day-to-day life.  That experience has given me a lot of compassion for women who experience breast pain.  This article is what I am giving back – hope for those women who suffer with pain, and a plan to overcome it.  Take back your ta-tas. 

Breast Tenderness Types

There are typically two types of breast pain – cyclical and noncyclical.  Cyclical breast pain is associated with your period, most often starting a few days (to weeks) before your period and stopping during or just after your period ends. 

Noncyclical pain doesn’t happen just around your period but can happen at any time.  It can be caused by pregnancy, breastfeeding, trauma or injury to the breast, pain from the muscles around the breast, or simply from having large breasts.  It can also be caused by medications, including birth control pills, antibiotics, and antidepressants. 

Most of this article will talk about how to overcome cyclical pain, but women with noncyclical pain can benefit from following these recommendations as well.

Is it Breast Cancer??

No.  It mostly likely is not breast cancer.  Breast pain is not typically linked to breast cancer, and having breast pain does not put you at higher risk of developing breast cancer. 

But don’t hesitate to see your doctor for a second opinion and a breast exam.  Especially if you have symptoms like heat in a specific area of your breast, a fixed/ non-moving breast lump, or changes to your skin on your breast. 

Why Do My Breasts Hurt?

The most common cause of breast pain is your hormones.  Specifically a condition known as estrogen dominance.  Estrogen is the hormone that causes breast tissue to develop in puberty, and throughout our adult lives our breasts continue to respond to estrogen stimulation.  During the week before your period estrogen and progesterone levels can become imbalanced, leading to breast pain.  This is worsened by an overburden of estrogen in our bodies, which we’ll discuss in a moment.  

Breast pain can also be more common in women who have fibrocystic breasts.  As women age her breast tissue is replaced by fat (a process known as involution).  This leads to the formation of breast cysts and fibrous tissue – and a more lumpy breast texture.  Fibrocystic breasts don’t always cause pain, but they can.  Especially as these lumps get bigger leading up to your period. 

Banishing Breast Pain: An Empowered Woman’s Guide

Experiencing breast pain is not a normal part of a woman’s life.  If you have tender breasts, try to understand why your body has developed this symptom – is it a hormonal imbalance? Are you stressed? Are you tired? Are you taking time for self-care? Is your diet and exercise up to your standards?  Once you’ve taken stock of your life, put the recommendations below into action for 2-3 months and see how much of an impact you can have on your health – you’ll be amazed at how powerful you are. 

1.Eliminate Estrogen Dominance

I’ve talked extensively about estrogen dominance elsewhere but it really is an incredibly common concern for women.  Estrogen is an important hormone for women’s health, but our levels are far higher than our systems can manage.  Increased estrogen production in our bodies from excess body fat, stress and poor diets, combined with estrogen-like chemicals in the environment (known as xenoestrogens), and terrible detoxification and elimination from alcohol consumption, low fiber diets and insufficient vegetable intake has left women living a veritable estrogen soup.   

The consequences of estrogen dominance are huge.  PMS, mood changes, low libido, sugar cravings, brain fog, crazy periods, and breast tenderness are common.  So what should we do about it?

Eliminating estrogen dominance is a huge issue in women’s health.  But luckily there are some action steps you can take now to address this hormone imbalance, and reduce your breast pain.

  • Reduce stress
  • Eat a high fiber diet – consider having 2 tbsp of ground flax seeds per day in addition to lots of healthy leafy green and rainbow vegetables
  • Eliminate excess body fat – a lot of women don’t realize that fat cells can make estrogen, so if you’re more than 15 lbs overweight, consider talking to your Naturopathic Doctor about how to achieve your healthiest body weight
  • Avoid plastics, pesticides and other sources of environmental estrogens.  Drink water and eat out of non-plastic containers.  And never microwave plastic!
  • Limit intake of dairy products

2. Detox Like a Champ

Reducing how much estrogen your body makes/ intakes is an excellent first step in banishing breast pain.  Now we move to the next step – supporting your liver in detoxifying that estrogen!  Your liver needs to take all the estrogen circulating in your body and convert it into a compound that you can eliminate (we’ll cover that in the next step!)  For effective detoxification we need to make sure we have adequate nutrients, especially the B vitamins and trace minerals.  We also want to ensure we’re not overwhelming our liver with excess alcohol intake, pain medications or other pharmaceutical medications.  One of the best things you can do to support your liver is not drink alcohol.  Risky alcohol consumption for women is anything more than one drink per day. 

To support your liver, be sure to eat lots of leafy green vegetables.  Bitter greens like kale, dandelion greens, endive or chicory are especially helpful for the liver.  You can also consider liver supportive supplements like dandelion root, turmeric, artichoke, greater celandine and milk thistle to up your detox game.

3. Master Your BMs

You can be a super-star detoxifier, but if you aren’t having daily bowel movements you are not going to be able to balance your hormones are reduce your breast pain.  Our excess hormones are eliminated in our poop – if you aren’t having healthy daily poops you are going to end up recycling a lot of that estrogen and having to detoxify it all over again.

Best bets for mastering your BMs are a high fiber diet, a regular intake of healthy probiotic bacteria – either through supplements or fermented foods, and potentially a magnesium supplement.  Magnesium citrate or bisglycinate can help to get you regular while you focus on improving your diet.  Studies suggest between 200-600mg of magnesium can help by drawing more water into your stool and promoting regular BMs.

4. Target Your Diet

Inflammation can be a major contributing factor to pain in our bodies, and our breasts are no exception.  By reducing inflammation in our diet we can significantly improve breast pain.

The ideal diet for breast pain is pretty much what you’d expect.  Eat more vegetables, lots of healthy plant based proteins, fish, leafy greens and healthy fats.  Limit or eliminate sugar, alcohol and dairy.  Coffee, especially at high amounts (more than 1-2 cups per day) can also contribute to inflammation and pain, so check in with yourself and see if you’re overdoing the drip. 

Adding in healthy fats and phytoestrogens will also help with hormone balance.  Flax seeds are a superstar for this – they contain omega 3 fats, healthy fiber and phytoestrogen lignans which bind to estrogen receptors and prevent other stronger estrogens from binding.  Flaxseeds – the overachiever of the seed family. 

5. Support with Supplements

You cannot supplement your way out of a terrible diet.  But there are absolutely some supplements than can help reduce breast pain, especially over the first few months while you are making the lifestyle and diet changes that will help you remain pain-free. 

EPO for breast pain

Vitamin E has been found in studies to reduce cyclic breast pain, especially when combined with evening primrose oil (EPO).  A fat-soluble nutrient, vitamin E reduces inflammation and acts as an antioxidant in our cells.  EPO is often used as a source of pregnenolone, the precursor hormone to progesterone, which is essential to balance the effects of estrogen in the body.  600IU of vitamin E with 2-3 grams of EPO is a typical dose. 

B vitamins are necessary for liver detoxification and can be taken as a simple B complex supplement.  Vegans and vegetarians in particular should be considering a B complex containing vitamin B12.

Iodine is another nutrient essential for breast health and low levels have been associated with the development of lumpy fibrocystic breasts.  Rates of iodine deficiency are incredibly common, and you should discuss with your ND whether or not you should test your levels.  A multivitamin supplement will provide you with some essential iodine, or seaweed snacks are a great food source. 

Chaste tree, or Vitex agnus-castus, is hands-down my favourite botanical supplement for cyclic breast pain.  Also used to reduce painful periods and PMS mood changes, chaste tree can be a game-changer for women with miserable premenstrual symptoms.  Talk to your ND to ensure this is a good choice for you. 

Taking Back Your Ta-Tas

My philosophy of women’s health is “No More Meh”.  You don’t have to accept symptoms of breast tenderness, mood changes and low libido.  You don’t have to feel exhausted and overwhelmed.  You are a force of nature.  You are a damn goddess.  Own it. 

If you want to work together, drop me a line via email or Facebook or follow me on Instagram. I’d love to meet you. 

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem. 

Select References

Pruthi S, Wahner-Roedler DL, Torkelson CJ, et al. Vitamin E and evening primrose oil for management of cyclical mastalgia: a randomized pilot study. Altern Med Rev. 2010;15(1):59-67. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20359269

Mirghafourvand M, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Ahmadpour P, Javadzadeh Y. Effects of Vitex agnus and flaxseed on cyclic mastalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Med. 2016;24:90-95. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26860808

Hormone Harmony during Breastfeeding

Going through my pregnancies with my two sons, and supporting hundreds of women in my practice through their pregnancies and beyond, I am always interested in the information that is given to pregnant women and what that says about what our society deems important.

Women going through pregnancy know a lot – they know what to eat, what to avoid, when their baby develops eyelashes (32 weeks) and what position to sleep in. They know how to track contractions, how often to breastfeed and the best positions for breastfeeding.

What women know very little about is what is happening in their own bodies. What the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy, breastfeeding and the postnatal stage mean for their own energy, emotions and health.

This article is here to close that gap – to help women understand the hormonal changes that occur during breastfeeding and when that hormone balance is normal, and when to seek support when it is not.

Breastfeeding Hormones

Breastfeeding is associated with production of two specific hormones: prolactin and oxytocin. These two hormones allow for peak production of breastmilk as well as bonding with your new babe. Let’s look at each one in more detail.

Prolactin

Prolactin, or “pro-lactation hormone” is produced during breastfeeding to increase breast milk supply. Levels rise for almost an hour after the baby begins to feed, encouraging the alveoli in the breasts to make milk.

But that is not all prolactin does. In fact, not just breastfeeding parents produce it – all parents produce it. Prolactin is a calming and relaxing hormone that decreases progesterone and testosterone production in both parents. It can cause mothers to feel deep relaxation (and sometimes deep fatigue) during breastfeeding and for some time after.

Interestingly, prolactin is also released during sexual intimacy, counteracting the effects of dopamine (which is associated with sexual arousal) and resulting in a sensation of gratification and calm. With high circulating levels of prolactin during the breastfeeding stage, there is often less sex drive – your body feels like it’s already in the afterglow, and your libido is no where to be seen.

Oxytocin

Mostly commonly referred to as the “love hormone”, oxytocin is released to encourage let down during breastfeeding. Oxytocin increases bonding and is produced in both parents during cuddling and intimate contact – with both the baby and with each other. Oxytocin levels are highest during new relationships, such as with your brand new baby, and while baby is breastfeeding.

Most of the time we respond to oxytocin in positive ways – it feels good to be awash in these bonding hormones. But it isn’t this way for all women. Some women are very sensitive to such high levels of oxytocin and feel more anxious, irritable or overwhelmed while breastfeeding.

Women’s Hormones in Breastfeeding

It is no surprise that women’s hormones fluctuate a lot in the time after pregnancy – after all, those hormones that helped to sustain the pregnancy are now dropping off (quickly!) to pre-pregnancy levels. How a woman feels in the months, and years, after her baby is born has a lot to do with the balance of her hormones.

Estrogen

Estrogen levels can hit menopausal levels for the months after giving birth – and for some women they stay low throughout the time she is breastfeeding. Low estrogen levels can cause mood swings, irritability, hot flashes and night sweats as well as vaginal dryness, tenderness and discomfort during sexual intercourse. Low estrogen can also zap your desire for sexual intimacy (let alone how dry your lady garden is…) Using a water-based lubricant, and engaging in foreplay can help to overcome some of these low estrogen issues, but if the concern persists, talk to your ND about a low dose topical estriol cream.

Low estrogen can also contribute to an increased incidence of yeast infections, especially in women who are prone to them. If this happens, talk to your Naturopathic Doctor about treatments that are safe during breastfeeding.

Progesterone

Progesterone – “pro-gestation hormone” is at sky-high levels during pregnancy and it can feel like a rollercoaster free fall when you return to pre-pregnancy baselines in the weeks after delivery. Prolactin production suppresses ovulation, especially during the first six months after delivery, and with no ovulation progesterone production is incredibly low.

Symptoms of low progesterone can include anxiety, depression, mood swings, low libido, and insomnia. Many clinicians believe that low progesterone is a contributing factor to the development of post-partum depression in some women. There are many available treatments for post-partum depression, if you are concerned that you may have PPD, talk to your Naturopathic Doctor right away.

Testosterone

Produced mainly by the ovaries, but also in the adrenal glands, testosterone levels are also low in breastfeeding women. Testosterone can contribute to sexual desire, as well as sexual response. Low levels can impact mood, focus and libido.

Beyond Hormones

The months after giving birth are a challenging time for everyone. My take home message here is that while lack of sleep, and an exhausting schedule are huge factors in the way women feel during the months and years of breastfeeding, there are also hormonal influences at play that need to be considered.

If you have been feeling off, feeling exhausted, or have mood swings or low moods don’t just attribute it to the busy-ness of having a baby – talk to someone about how you can support your hormones and restore your hormone harmony throughout breastfeeding.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

The PMS Diet

Premenstrual syndrome may hit you like a storm each month, throwing your mood and your body into chaos and misery. But does it have to be like that? We all know women who sail through their cycles with not a concern in the world. Is it possible that we all can achieve that level of hormone harmony and banish our PMS symptoms? Yes, I believe it is.

The PMS Diet

My philosophy is that health comes from the balance of three key components:

  1. What we put into our bodies (food, alcohol, drugs, etc.)
  2. How we move our body (exercise, flexibility, play, etc.)
  3. The thoughts we hold in our mind-body (gratitude, self love, frustration, etc.)

With this philosophy at the core of my approach, I often suggest that women with hormone imbalances consider the impact of their diet. And in PMS your diet can have a huge impact – for good, or for bad. So lets get to it and discuss how you can have an impact on your PMS by optimizing your diet.

  1. Quit sugar

Ladies, you know this one. But it is so damn hard to do – your body can send some pretty strong cravings for sugar when hormone imbalances associated with PMS cause your serotonin to plummet. But sugar is not going to make anything better.

Women who experience PMS eat, on average, 275% more refined sugar than women who do not have PMS. What?!! That’s a ton of sugar! And women with PMS also consume between 200-500 more calories per day – typically in the forms of carbohydrates, fats and sweets. That is not going to make anyone feel better!

The main issue is that sugar increases the loss of magnesium in the urine – and magnesium deficiency is thought to be the cause of a lot of PMS symptoms, including fatigue, irritability, brain fog, insomnia as well as period cramps. Just to add to your misery, sugar also increases salt and water retention, leading to swelling and breast tenderness. Ugh.

  1. Avoid alcohol

We’re still in common sense country here, but avoiding alcohol really is something you need to do if you want to balance your hormones and eliminate PMS. While reaching for a glass of wine (or two) is tempting when you’re in a PMS rage, you are not making things any better. Alcohol can inhibit your liver’s ability to detoxify hormones, and can lead to higher circulating estrogen levels. This can exacerbate the imbalance of hormones that is already thought to cause PMS – high estrogen to low progesterone.  So consider making a cup of tea instead, and skip the alcohol for your own sake.

  1. Cut the caffeine

I’m really not making any friends with this article. I’m feeling like a bit of a buzz kill! But let’s talk straight – hormone imbalances are strongly associated with our behaviours. And we can change our behaviours!

Drinking coffee, and other caffeine-containing beverages, has been found to be associated with PMS, and with a greater severity of PMS. If you have PMS, I encourage you to try a cycle without caffeine and see if you notice an improvement, a lot of the women in my practice have found this to have a huge impact.

  1. Skip the salt

If you experience bloating, breast tenderness or swelling during PMS, you should check your diet to see if you are eating too much salt. Mostly found in processed food, salt can contribute to water retention, and swelling. Skipping prepared, processed and fast foods should bring your salt intake down to a balanced and healthy level.

  1. Get complex

Breads, bagels, crackers, pasta and other simple carbohydrates are setting you up for blood sugar instability and almost guaranteeing a miserable PMS. Instead of these foods, opt for the complex carbohydrates, these are slower to digest, keep you full longer and your blood sugar stable. Women who eat more complex carbohydrates also eat more fiber, an important nutrient that promotes estrogen elimination from the body.

So banish the bread and instead go for whole grains – brown rice, oats, quinoa, millet, and amaranth are delicious. And try sweet potatoes, squash, lentils, and beans for filling complex carbohydrates.

  1. Go green

Leafy greens are a PMS fighting superfood! A rich source of calcium and magnesium, leafy greens also support liver function, encouraging the liver to detoxify and eliminate excess estrogen. Choose your favourite leafy greens and eat them every day – kale, spinach, arugula, swiss chard or collard greens are all excellent choices!

  1. Go fish!

Fish, and other foods that are rich in vitamin B6, are important for any woman struggling with PMS. B6, a water-soluble nutrient, is involved in over 100 reactions in our body, many of which are involved in the production of hormones and neurotransmitters. Vitamin B6 is one of the best studied nutrients for PMS, and it has been found to help restore balance for women with PMS and reduce symptoms, especially mood symptoms such as irritation, anger and sadness.

  1. Open sesame

Sesame seeds are an excellent source of calcium, and clinical trials have found that women with the highest intake of calcium have the lowest incidence of PMS symptoms. While most studies have been on calcium supplements, increasing dietary calcium is a great place to start.

Other great sources of calcium include tofu, sardines, leafy greens, cabbage, broccoli, green beans, squash, bean sprouts, almonds, brazil nuts, quinoa, chickpeas, beans and oranges.

  1. Beans, beans, beans!

There are many reasons why beans pack a powerful punch in treating PMS. Beans are an excellent source of magnesium, one of the most important nutrient imbalances in PMS. Taken as a supplement, magnesium can improve mood, reduce breast tenderness and relieve pain during periods.

But beans offer more than just magnesium. They also are a rich source of fiber and protein. Women who consume a mostly vegetarian diet have lower incidence of PMS and lower levels of estrogen – both benefits that can be achieved by just increasing the beans in your diet.

  1. Boost Bacteria

Fermented foods, like kim chi, sauerkraut, kombucha and kefir all contain probiotics – healthy bacteria that can live in our digestive tracts and support our overall health. Healthy bacteria do more than just help our digestion, they also support hormone balance – especially estrogen elimination, an important component of managing PMS.

When your bacteria balance is optimal your body is able to easily eliminate estrogen. When your bacteria levels are out of balance estrogen levels increase and can significantly contribute to PMS. So try some fermented foods, or take a daily probiotic to balance your bacteria.

 Diet and More

Diet is an excellent place to start in treating your PMS.  It may seem simple, but simple things can sometimes be incredibly powerful.  Each action you take on a daily basis, each food you eat, or those foods you don’t eat, all influence your hormone balance and determine whether you sail through PMS or struggle.  Once you have started with these dietary changes, if you are still experiencing symptoms, check out my top treatments for PMS, ask whether you may be experiencing PMDD or take a refresher on the hormonal imbalances of PMS.  And if you are ready to take the next step, feel free to get in touch so we can work together on resolving your PMS.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

 

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150 Symptoms of PMS

With 3 out of 4 women experiencing some symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, most of us can come up with a pretty good list of symptoms for ourselves. But did you know that 150 symptoms have been identified? That’s a pretty substantial number!

Ranging from mild bloating to severe mood changes and migraines, and everything in between, PMS can seriously impact a woman’s mood, quality of life, and relationships.

And remember, you don’t just have to accept PMS. You can manage it and treat it effectively. But that’s in another article. This one is The 150 Symptoms of PMS.

Digestive Symptoms

  1. Bloating
  2. Weight gain
  3. Constipation
  4. Diarrhea
  5. Nausea
  6. Vomiting
  7. Gas
  8. Cravings for salt
  9. Cravings for sweets
  10. Cravings for alcohol
  11. Increased appetite
  12. Decreased appetite
  13. Increased sensitivity to alcohol
  14. Increased sensitivity to taste/ spices/ flavour
  15. Increased thirst

Physical Symptoms

  1. Fatigue
  2. Water retention and swelling
  3. Increased sweating
  4. Night sweats
  5. Hot flashes
  6. Fatigue
  7. Increased sleep hours/ desire for sleep
  8. Clumsiness
  9. Easy bruising
  10. Increased heart rate
  11. Irregular heart beat
  12. Increased sensitivity to light
  13. Increased sensitivity to sound
  14. Increased sensitivity to touch
  15. Increased sensitivity to chemicals
  16. Seizures

Ear, Nose, Throat and Head

  1. Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
  2. Dizziness
  3. Lightheadedness
  4. Headaches
  5. Migraines
  6. Cold sore outbreaks
  7. Puffy eyes
  8. Blurred vision
  9. Hordeolum (eye stye)
  10. Dry mouth
  11. Rhinitis (runny nose)
  12. Worsening of allergy symptoms
  13. Increased sensitivity to odours

Respiratory System

  1. Shortness of breath
  2. Worsening of asthma
  3. Sore throat
  4. Sensation of lump in throat
  5. Hoarse voice

Muscles, Bones and Joints

  1. Back pain
  2. Leg pain
  3. Joint pain or worsening arthritis
  4. Muscle weakness
  5. Muscle stiffness

Lady Garden Symptoms

  1. More frequent urination
  2. More frequent yeast infections
  3. More frequent urinary tract infections
  4. More frequent HSV outbreaks
  5. Dry vaginal tract
  6. Painful intercourse

Breast Symptoms

  1. Breast tenderness
  2. Breast swelling
  3. Increase in breast size

Skin Symptoms

  1. Acne
  2. Dry skin
  3. Oily skin
  4. Oily scalp
  5. Increased sweating
  6. Swelling of face or extremities
  7. Worsening of rosacea
  8. Worsening of eczema
  9. Worsening of psoriasis

Mood and Emotional Symptoms

  1. Increased libido
  2. Decreased libido
  3. Poor decision making
  4. Eating disorders
  5. Anger
  6. Aggression
  7. Irritation
  8. Forgetfulness
  9. Indecisiveness
  10. Poor concentration
  11. Brain fog
  12. Inability to think clearly
  13. Poor learning, less able to retain information
  14. Lack of motivation
  15. Increased sensitivity
  16. Avoidance of social interaction
  17. Avoidance of responsibilities
  18. Withdrawn
  19. Confusion
  20. Excitability
  21. Mood swings
  22. Restlessness
  23. Hopelessness
  24. Anxiety
  25. Depression
  26. Loneliness
  27. Guilt
  28. Apathy
  29. Poor self esteem
  30. Reduced confidence
  31. Jealousy
  32. Paranoia
  33. Fearfulness
  34. Tension
  35. Poor coping
  36. Inability to relax
  37. Feeling keyed up or on edge
  38. Sadness
  39. Suicidal thoughts
  40. Frequent outbursts
  41. Sudden outbursts
  42. Feeling overwhelmed
  43. Feeling out of control
  44. Difficulty controlling anger or sadness
  45. Crying
  46. Melancholy
  47. Defensiveness
  48. Stubbornness
  49. Negative outlook
  50. More easily offended
  51. More easily hurt or upset
  52. Lack of coordination
  53. Intentional self harm
  54. Increased addictive behaviours (shopping, drugs, alcohol)
  55. Increased productivity
  56. Decreased productivity
  57. Hypersomnia
  58. Insomnia
  59. Lack of pleasure in life
  60. Worsening of pre-existing mental health concerns
  61. Possible increase in criminal behaviour

Well, try as I might, I could only find 133 symptoms of PMS.  To be considered a PMS symptom, it must have the following characteristics:

  1. Restricted to the luteal phase (second half) of the menstrual cycle
  2. Resolve by the four day of the next cycle (fourth day of the period)
  3. Cause impairment or distress for the woman
  4. Occur in at least two cycles
  5. Not be an exacerbation of another condition

Can you think of any PMS symptoms I may have missed? Were you surprised by any of the symptoms on here? Let me know in the comments below!

 

PMS or PMDD?

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a many-headed beast – with over 150 different symptoms attributed to PMS, many women find the week before their period to be a challenging time.

But what about those women who are completely destroyed by their PMS? Who suffer with severe mood changes, insomnia and fatigue? For those women, they may be suffering from PMDD – premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

A Diagnosis of PMDD

PMDD is classified as a depressive disorder. It is not the same as clinical depression as it occurs with a very specific timing – during the second half of the menstrual cycle, after ovulation, and it resolves within a few days of starting your period.

PMDD causes a lot of distress and significantly impacts a woman’s ability to function and to maintain her quality of life. Between 2-6% of women experience PMDD, but many of them don’t seek treatment and instead suffer each month with severe symptoms.

PMDD is different from PMS in the severity of symptoms and the consequences of the mood changes.   The diagnosis is made by using symptom tracking reports and needs to meet the following criteria:

Treatment of PMDD

The conventional approach to treating PMDD results in most women being given one of two options: the birth control pill, or an antidepressant. While these treatments may be effective for some women, many more women are seeking a more natural, empowered approach to managing their PMDD.

Natural Approaches to PMDD

In my article on Ten Natural Treatments for PMS I discuss the lifestyle and diet for managing PMS. I suggest all women with PMDD also follow those recommendations. But for PMDD I tend to take a more aggressive approach – the symptoms are often severe enough to warrant a very targeted and bold plan.

Vitamin B6

Used in both PMS and PMDD, vitamin B6 is necessary for the production of cortisol, progesterone and serotonin – all hormones involved in PMS and PMDD. Taking high (orthomolecular) doses of vitamin B6 can be helpful at reducing symptoms of PMS and PMDD. Vitamin B6 is usually taken all month long, but higher doses can be used in the second half of the cycle if needed.

Calcium

Calcium has been found in studies to reduce a wide variety of symptoms associated with PMS. While I don’t find it to be useful on its own, in a robust protocol calcium can play a role in reducing both the mood and physical symptoms of PMS and PMDD.

L-tryptophan and 5-HTP

Two supplements that can increase the production of serotonin in the body, L-tryptophan and 5-HTP, show a lot of promise in the treatment of PMDD. Supporting the serotonin system in women has been one of the most effective means of treating PMDD. L-tryptophan and 5-HTP are the direct precursors of serotonin and can significantly reduce mood symptoms of PMDD. These supplements are not taken together, and should not be combined with other antidepressants. Use under the guidance of a knowledgeable and experienced Naturopathic Doctor.

St. John’s Wort

One of the most commonly used botanical medicines, St. John’s Wort is an excellent treatment for women with PMDD. Acting on the serotonin system in the body, St. John’s Wort can reduce depressive symptoms of PMDD and improve mood. It can be taken all month long, or just during the second half of the menstrual cycle.

Chaste Berry

Chaste berry (chaste tree, Vitex agnus-castus), which I also discussed in the PMS article, has been found to be effective for PMDD. Chaste berry can reduce anger, irritability, anxiety, mood swings, and physical symptoms associated with PMS and PMDD. My experience is that it can be moderately effective for PMDD, but often additional treatments are needed to help women feel considerably better.

IV Micronutrient Therapy

One treatment that I have found to drastically improve PMS and PMDD symptoms in women is IV micronutrient therapy (IVMT). IVMT allows us to administer doses of vitamins (like B6, calcium and magnesium) at higher doses than you would be able to take orally. IV therapy also provides an abundance of nutrients necessary for detoxification of hormones – and reducing the hormone burden in the body can greatly improve symptoms of PMDD. Not every woman is a candidate for IVMT, but talk to your Naturopath to find out if you are.

Bio-Identical Progesterone

While we don’t know exactly what causes PMS and PMDD, one suspect in this mystery is an imbalance of estrogen and progesterone – often called estrogen dominance. When progesterone levels are unstable, or low, and estrogen levels are high, PMS and PMDD depression and mood swings can result. For some women, especially those in their 40s, bio-identical progesterone can be a lifesaver. Your ND will give you a questionnaire to identify a possible progesterone imbalance, and may also recommend hormone testing.

Empowering Your Journey

If you are interested in learning more about how to manage your PMDD, I suggest working with a qualified Naturopathic Doctor who can guide you on this journey.  PMDD is too severe, and too complex to try and piece together a treatment on your own.  Working with an ND who can guide and support you on this journey may be the best decision you make for your health and your sanity.

Select Resources

Comprehensive Gynecology, Seventh Edition. Ed. Lobo R, Gershenson D, Lentz G. 2017; 37, 815-828.

Ferri’s Clinical Advisor. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Ed. Ferri FF. 2019

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider. Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

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10 Tips to Treat PMS Naturally

PMS (premenstrual syndrome) sucks.  That’s not medical jargon, that’s just the way it is.  Once a month, up to three-quarters of women experience physical or emotional discomfort or pain which can last up to 14 days (seriously.  14 days.)  Over 150 symptoms of PMS have been identified but the most common symptoms are:

Naturopathic treatment of PMS
There are over 150 symptoms associated with PMS

  • Decreased energy
  • Irritability, nervousness, anxiety and anger
  • Food cravings
  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Altered sex drive
  • Breast pain
  • Muscle aches and low back pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea and/ or constipation
  • Swelling of the hands and feet
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Difficulty sleeping

What causes PMS?

Honestly, we don’t exactly know.  Researchers, clinicians, and people all over the internet debate this constantly.  We do know that it’s most likely a combination of imbalances in our hormones, neurotransmitters, lifestyle factors and our environment that leads to symptoms of PMS.

Balancing these diverse systems gives most women relief from their PMS symptoms. But it can take some time to determine what will work for you!  Don’t try to do this alone – an experienced naturopath or functional medicine doctor can guide you and give you the best chance for bidding farewell to your PMS.

Below you will find my TOP TEN natural treatments for PMS.  Start here.  Empower yourself with knowledge.  Then find the support you need.

10 Tips to Treat PMS Naturally

1. Exercise

Come on.  We know exercise is important, but did you know it can decrease your PMS symptoms?  Studies have shown again and again that women who engage in regular exercise have fewer PMS symptoms than women who do not.  And the exercise doesn’t need to be intense – it just needs to happen regularly (at least 3 times per week throughout the month).

Exercise can reducing estrogen levels, improve blood sugar levels and raise your feel-good endorphins!  And really, any exercise will do.  So run, dance, swim, cycle, hula hoop, yoga or pilates – it doesn’t matter.  Just do it!

2.    Cut the sugar

Women who experience PMS have been reported to eat whopping 275% more refined sugar than women who do not get PMS symptoms.  DAMN.

Refined sugars zap our magnesium levels, increase salt and water retention and create imbalances in our insulin levels.  All of these concerns have been linked to PMS symptoms.

Eliminating refined sugar and limiting simple carbohydrates (grains, pasta, baked goods) in favour of high fiber complex carbohydrates (fruits and vegetables, whole grains) lowers levels of estrogen, improves magnesium levels and can significantly improve symptoms of PMS.   So cut out the cookies, cakes, bagels and breads in favour of oatmeal, popcorn, quinoa, brown rice and other fiber rich foods.

 3.    Eliminate caffeine

I hate to be the bearer of bad news, but caffeine consumption is associated with more and worse PMS symptoms.  Caffeine is linked especially to breast tenderness, anxiety, irritability and difficulty sleeping during PMS.  The impact is even worse when combined with sugar (pay attention all you Frappuccino drinkers!).  Eliminating caffeine, or limiting it during the premenstrual phase can improve PMS symptoms for a lot of women.

4.    Take a probiotic

Probiotics are not just for digestive health!  Those little buggers living in our intestines are working hard for our health.  Healthy bacteria can decrease symptoms of PMS by increasing beta-glucuronidase enzyme activity and promoting estrogen excretion.

The best way to establish healthy bacteria levels in your gut is to take a probiotic supplement.  Try for one with both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum.  Taken with food, probiotics are extremely safe and have no negative side effects (you can experience bloating if you take too much – 1 to 10 billion is usually a safe amount).

 5.    Consider Cal-Mag

1k-7649 spinachEstrogen and calcium are BFFs in our bodies.  Estrogen is involved in the absorption, metabolism and utilization of calcium in our bodies (this is why we are more prone to osteoporosis as we age – we’re learning so much today!)  And studies have found that both mood and physical symptoms of PMS are improved with daily calcium supplementation

Magnesium deficiency is a serious concern and most women with PMS are deficient in magnesium!  I’m going to say that again – MOST women with PMS are deficient in magnesium.   Magnesium deficiency causes fatigue, irritability, mental confusion, menstrual cramps, insomnia, muscle aches or pains and heart beat irregularities.

Dietary sources of calcium include dark green leafy vegetables, dairy (cheese, yogurt, milk), tofu, and almonds.  Dietary sources of magnesium are similar and include green leafy vegetables, tofu, legumes, nuts, seeds and whole grains.  Take to your ND about a Cal-Mag supplement, and take it in the evening away from other medications and supplements.

6.    Bring the B vitamins

It is hard to keep track of the hundreds of different things B vitamins do!  One of the most important is the detoxification of hormones through our liver.  If you don’t have enough B vitamins, your body is going to be dealing with those hormones a lot longer than you want to be.

Vitamin B6 is also a superstar when it comes to treating PMS.  Necessary for the production of two neurotransmitters – serotonin and dopamine (read all about them in my article on hormones for happiness!), vitamin B6 can seriously ease symptoms of PMS such as low energy, irritability and mood swings.

As if that wasn’t enough, B6 is also involved in transfer of magnesium into cells – without B6 magnesium wouldn’t be able to enter cells.  This is another reason why B vitamins, and especially B6 are so important in the relief of PMS symptoms.

7.    Dong Quai

Dong Quai (Angelica sinensis) is a traditional Chinese herb with thousands of years of use for imbalances in women’s hormones.  It has been used for menopause, painful menstruation, no menstruation and as a uterine tonic.  Dong quai has phytoestrogenic properties and I recommend it for women who experience PMS symptoms in addition to painful menstruation.

Dong quai is usually used from ovulation (day 14) until menstruation begins.  If you are also experiencing painful periods, continue it until your period stops.

 8.    Chaste tree

The SINGLE most important herb in the treatment of PMS, chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus) has been a life-changer for many women in my practice.

The effects of chaste tree appear to be due to the impact it has on the hypothalamus and pituitary – the starting point for hormone production in the body.  As a result, chaste tree is able to normalize the production of many hormones, for instance, reducing prolactin levels and normalizing the estrogen to progesterone ratio.

Chaste tree is best taken daily throughout the menstrual cycle.  Studies have found it to be useful for almost all symptoms associated with PMS including irritability, mood swings, anger, anxiety, headache, and breast tenderness.

9.    Licorice

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is an amazing herb – one of the most powerful we use.  It has been used in both Western and Eastern herbal medicine for thousands of years for a wide variety of ailments.  It also has impressive modern scientific research to back up its historical uses.

 Licorice is useful in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome because it lowers estrogen levels while simultaneously raising progesterone levels.  Licorice also blocks the hormone aldosterone, decreasing water retention.

Licorice is usually taken from ovulation (day 14) until your period starts.  It should not be used if you have a history of kidney disease or high blood pressure.  You should be under the care of a Naturopathic Doctor while taking licorice.

10. See a Naturopathic Doctor

Obviously I think this is the best thing you can do to help manage your PMS symptoms.  Naturopathic Doctors are experts in correcting the underlying imbalances that lead to PMS symptoms.  Your unique set of symptoms will give an experienced ND a lot of information that can be used to individualize a treatment plan just for you.  NDs also can order comprehensive hormone panels that will identify imbalances in cortisol, estrogen, progesterone or testosterone that may be contributing to your symptoms.  You can find a licensed Naturopathic Doctor in your area by visiting the national association websites – CAND in Canada and AANP in the United States.  And of course, you can contact me if you’d like us to work together.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.