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Oww… My Head Hurts – Determining Your Headache Type

Headaches are one of the most common health complaints.  Almost every person will experience a headache at some point during their life (imagine being one of the few who never gets a headache!)

The majority of headaches can be classified as vascular (migraine and cluster headaches), tension headaches or a mixture of the two.  Less frequent causes of headaches include trauma, dental pain, jaw disorders, neck disorders, sinus pain and tumours.

So, with so many different types of headaches, knowing what kind of headache you have is important for you to understand and will have a big impact on conventional and Naturopathic treatment of your headache.

The Most Common HeadachesTypes of headaches

The most common headache types seen in clinical practice are (from most to least common):

  • Tension Headache
  • Chronic Daily Headache
  • Migraine
  • Cluster Headache

Important Features to Know About Your Headache

When trying to determine what type of headache you have there are a number of features you should consider.

  1. Onset: Does the headache come on suddenly, or slowly over the course of several hours?
  2. Regularity: Does the headache start at the same time everyday?
  3. Laterality: Is the headache on one side, both sides, or everywhere?
  4. Location: Where is the pain the worst?  At the back of the head, top of the head, sides of the head, base of the neck, behind the eyes, or elsewhere?
  5. Pain characteristic: How would you describe the pain?  Dull, band-like, throbbing, pounding, excruciating?
  6. Associated symptoms: Are there any other symptoms associated with the headache?  Any muscle tension, blurred vision, nausea, sensitivity to light, need to move around?
  7. Aggravations: Have you found anything that makes the headache worse?
  8. Ameliorations: Have you found anything that makes the headache better?

Determining Your Headache Type

Taking your answers to the questions above you can match the type of headache that most closely matches the features of your headache.

Migraines

Onset Sudden, occasionally with an ‘aura’ preceding it (a sense that a headache is coming)
Regularity Not typically at the same time everyday, but exposure to triggers (such as sunlight, odours, fatigue or foods) can cause the migraine to occur with some regularity
Laterality One side, or both sides
Location Behind eyes, top of head, temples, sides of head
Pain Characteristic Throbbing, pounding
Associated symptoms Blurred visionLack of appetite, nausea, vomitingNeed for avoidance of light (photophobia) and sound (sonophobia)
Aggravations Light, noise, odours
Ameliorations Ergotamine drugsCaffeine (for some people)

.

Cluster Headaches

Onset Sudden
Regularity Occur in ‘clusters’ – regularly for several weeks or months usually followed by a time with no headaches
Laterality One sided
Location Behind the eyes, at the temples
Pain Characteristic Excruciating, throbbing
Associated symptoms Inability to lie still
Aggravations Very individual – some people have seasonal aggravations (worse in Spring) or time aggravations (worse with no sleep) or foods (alcohol, gluten, etc.)
Ameliorations Rocking, constant movement

.

Tension Headaches

Onset Slowly over the course of hours
Regularity Can be daily or during times of stress
Laterality Depends on location of muscle tension
Location Starts at base of skull or forehead and spreads over the entire head
Pain Characteristic Steady, constant, dull, pressure-sensation
Associated symptoms Muscle tension
Aggravations Stress, tight muscles
Ameliorations Muscle relaxation, massage, stretching

.

Chronic Daily Headaches

Onset Can be migraine-type or tension-type
Regularity Daily
Laterality Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)
Location Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)
Pain Characteristic Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)
Associated symptoms Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)
Aggravations Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)
Ameliorations Depends on type (migraine-type or tension-type)

 

What To Do Now?

So now that you have an idea of what kind of headache you have, where do you go from here?  The answer to that is more difficult.  Each type of headache has a different cause and a different treatment.  And each headache sufferer will respond to different interventions.  One person may need additional nutritional support, another person may need relaxation exercises and regular massage therapy, another may respond best to botanical medicine.

This is where Naturopathic Medicine can be extremely helpful for headache sufferers.  Each person is treated as an individual.  Your Naturopathic Doctor will help you determine the root cause of your headaches, and treat accordingly.  A Naturopath will figure out why you have headaches and remove that imbalance, helping you strive for a headache-free life.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Spring Cleanse – 12 Simple Tips for Cleansing Your Body and Mind

Spring Cleansing Can Be Simple

Spring.  Just hearing that word makes me smile.  It’s my favourite time of year.  It’s a time when we throw open our windows and let the sunshine and fresh air into our homes.  It’s the time when we spring clean our homes, and we should do the same for our bodies.

A spring cleanse can be a wonderful way to clean up our diets and feel as good on the inside as Spring feels outside.

There are many benefits to a spring cleanse: increased energy, better digestion, fewer allergy symptoms, improved immune system function, better sleep, better concentration, healthier skin, healthy weight and many, many more.

Spring cleansing doesn’t have to be hard.  Join me as I do my annual Spring cleanse (I cleanse for the entire month of April every year!)  I want to share with you 12 Simple Tips for Spring Cleansing so that you too can clean up your body without strict regimes or harsh restrictions.

1. Drink water

Our bodies need at least 8 to 10 glasses of water (or more!) daily to help flush out toxins.  Adding the juice of one organic lemon to a glass of water can add flavour, antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and support the detoxifying actions of our kidneys, liver, and colon.

lime2. Eat clean

Eating clean is a simple strategy for a healthy diet.  Eliminate all the ‘trash’ foods – fried foods, sugary foods and all processed, pre-prepared, and packaged foods.  Eat whole foods – a general guideline is if the food looks like it does in nature, you can have it!

3. If you can’t read it, you shouldn’t eat it!

Read the labels – even on the so-called ‘healthy’ foods.  If the ingredient list is long, or contains words that you can’t pronounce, then you probably shouldn’t eat it.  Chemicals and food preservatives often have long, complicated names and should be avoided to lower our body’s burden of toxic chemicals.

4. Eliminate or cut back on meat and dairy products.

Meat and dairy over-consumption are responsible for a number of health conditions affecting North Americans (high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity).  Meat puts a strain on your kidneys and intestines and requires a lot of energy to digest.  Dairy promotes mucus formation and is a common food allergy.   Give your body a break and eliminate or cut back on these foods.

5. Eat a rainbow.

Eat as many different colours of fruits and vegetables as possible each day.  This will make sure your body is getting a diverse selection of vitamins and minerals.  Aim to make three-quarters of each meal vegetables.

6. Discover whole grains.

Whole grains is NOT the same as ‘whole grain bread’.  Whole grains are foods like brown rice, quinoa, millet, kamut and amaranth.  If you haven’t tried these foods – you should!  They are simple to prepare and delicious.  Whole Foods Markets have a great variety of whole grain recipes on their website.  Whole grains are high in fiber, B vitamins and when combined with beans provide a complete meat-free protein.

Beans are a healthy carbohydrate7. Include 1/2 cup of legumes (beans) in your diet every day.

Beans are delicious, filling and a great source of fiber and nutrients.  Beans also help balance your blood sugar and can promote healthy weight maintenance and enhance energy levels.

8. Choose healthy snacks and enjoy them frequently.

Eating frequently throughout the day helps to stabilize your blood sugar and maintain your energy throughout the day.  Healthy snacks include: raw nuts (like almonds, walnuts, and brazil nuts), almond butter on celery sticks, carrot sticks and hummus, berry smoothies with almond milk, frozen or fresh grapes, and dates with pecans.

9. Do alternating showers every morning.

Most people choose to shower in water that is much too hot.  Choose a temperature that is warm rather than hot to decrease dehydration.  At the end of the shower alternate between hot water (hot enough to turn your skin pink – but not so hot that it burns) for one minute and cold water (cold but bearable) for 20 seconds.  Repeat this sequence two or three times to encourage healthy blood and lymph circulation and promote detoxification.

10. Take deep, cleansing breaths three times per day.

The lungs are an important organ of elimination that are often overlooked during cleanses.  Spend one minute three times per day taking in five deep, cleansing, slow breaths.

11. Drink tea (instead of coffee).

As part of my cleanse I am drinking a cup of matcha daily.  Matcha is a green tea full of antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds.  You could also drink regular green tea or a botanical tea such as dandelion root teawhich supports the liver in it’s important detoxifying role.

Exercise for your mind and body

12. Go outside and exercise.

Exercise improves circulation, energy levels, sleep quality and encourages detoxification through the skin and lungs.  Exercising in the fresh air brings clean fresh oxygen to your blood and revitalizes your body, mind, and spirit.

Doing a spring cleanse does not have to be difficult.  I look forward each year to my spring cleanse.  It reminds me how good it feels to prepare healthy food for myself and my family.  It refreshes my mind, body and spirit and makes me feel happy, energized and healthy.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Getting to the Root of Female Hair Loss

Hair loss is a condition affecting many adults – both men and women.  Women are more likely to question why they are experiencing hair loss and may be more negatively affected by the hair loss than men.  Women with hair loss report lower self esteem and often have higher levels of fear, stress, depression and anxiety.

Conventional medicine is often dismissive of female hair loss.  The hair loss is most often not severe alopecia (the medical term for hair loss) and it is often diffuse (scattered over the scalp).

So why are women in their 20s, 30s, and 40s experiencing hair loss?  There are a number of potential causes.  By addressing the root cause of the hair loss, many women are able to stop the hair loss and in some instances, reverse it.

Aging

Unfortunately, hair loss is a normal part of aging.  By the age of 40, the rate of hair growth slows down.  New hairs are not replaced as quickly as old ones are lost.  This age-related hair loss affects both men and women.  In men the hair loss can be more prominent due to the effects of androgens (male sex hormones – such as testosterone).

Androgens

Androgens can contribute to hair loss in women just like in men.  It has been known since the time of Hippocrates that male sex hormones (androgens) contribute to hair loss.  This androgen-related hair loss is very common in women.  A report published in the Clinical Dermatology journal states that it affects approximately 30% of women before age 50.   When it occurs in women it is often referred to as “female pattern hair loss”.

There are a number of reasons why a woman may be affected by androgen-related hair loss.  Genetics, excess androgens, insulin resistance, diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and low antioxidant status are all associated with female pattern hair loss.

Drug-Induced Hair Loss

A long list of pharmaceutical drugs can cause hair loss.  Some of the most common ones are:

  • Medications_hair loss
    Many common medications can contribute to female hair loss

    Antibiotics

  • Anticoagulants (Coumadin, heparin)
  • Antidepressants (Prozac, lithium)
  • Antiepileptics (Valproic acid, Dilantin)
  • Cardiovascular drugs (ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers)
  • Chemotherapy drugs
  • Endocrine drugs (Clomid, danazol)
  • Gout medications (Colchicine, allopurinol)
  • Lipid-lowering drugs
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, naproxen)
  • Ulcer medications (Zantac, tagamet)

When possible, natural alternatives to these drugs should be considered if hair loss is occurring.

Nutritional Deficiencies

A deficiency of almost any essential nutrient can lead to hair loss.  A Naturopathic Doctor can assess your overall nutrient status, but there are a few signs you can look for at home.

Zinc – white lines on the nail can indicate poor wound healing, a common sign of low zinc levels.

Vitamin A – bumps on the back of the arms (called hyperkeratosis) is a common sign of vitamin A deficiency.

Essential Fatty Acids dry skin on the elbows and other parts of the body is a common sign of low essential fatty acid levels.

Another nutrient deficiencies that may lead to hair loss is iron.  A simple blood test is needed to determine iron levels.  Your Naturopathic Doctor can help you interpret this test – many labs have normal ranges that include low iron levels that should be corrected with iron supplements.

If you are deficient in any of these nutrients a test of hydrochloric acid (stomach acid) should be considered to determine if you are not absorbing nutrients properly from your diet.

Hypothyroidism

Hair loss is one of the first features noticed by most women with hypothyroidism.  10 to 20% of the adult population has mild to severe hypothyroidism.  A blood test can be done to determine if hypothyroidism is causing your female hair loss.

Celiac Disease and Gluten Intolerance

Gluten Free LogoCeliac disease is a medical condition where gluten (a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye grains) damages the small intestines and causes systemic symptoms by cross-reacting antibodies that attack various cells in the body, including hair follicles.  The hair loss with celiac disease is often complete – a condition known as alopecia areata.

In people with gluten intolerance, the condition may manifest as hair loss (not complete) rather than digestive symptoms (which are a predominant feature of celiac disease).

Consider being tested for celiac disease if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Bulk, pale, frothy, foul-smelling bowel movements
  • Weight loss
  • Signs of multiple vitamin and mineral deficiencies

A gluten-free diet will virtually eliminate symptoms in people with celiac disease.  A trial elimination of all gluten containing foods is recommended for anyone with hair loss to determine if gluten sensitivity is a cause.

Treatment of Hair Loss in Women

One of the central philosophies of Naturopathic Medicine is to treat the cause.  The treatment for female hair loss depends on the underlying cause of the hair loss.

hormone balance_feet
Hormone balance, addressing nutrient deficiencies and addressing the cause will improve hair loss in women.

Treatment of Androgen-Related Hair Loss in Women

  • Address underlying causes of androgen excess
  • Improve blood glucose regulation – low glycemic index diet, blood glucose normalizing supplements (such as glucomannan, fenugreek, or bitter melon), and regular exercise
  • Increase antioxidant intake – vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, green tea
  • Saw palmetto extract – reduces the formation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) a more potent form of testosterone that is often elevated in male and female pattern hair loss.  Works in a similar manner to Propecia (finasteride) – a prescription drug often used in female hair loss.

Treatment of Nutrient Deficiency-Related Hair Loss in Women

  • Test hydrochloric acid levels to ensure nutrients from food are being absorbed and supplement when necessary
  • A high-potency multivitamin and mineral formula (with iron when indicated)
  • Flaxseed or fish oil daily as a source of essential omega-3 fatty acids

Hair loss in women is a concern that should be taken seriously.  Although some hair loss naturally occurs with aging there may be another underlying cause of hair loss.  Consult with your Naturopathic Doctor if hair loss is a concern for you.  There is help available.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Ten Tips to Treat Allergies

Spring has sprung!  And with it comes… allergies.  The sniffling, sneezing, burning and redness can put a damper on this beautiful time of year.  But there is hope.  Here are ten tips to try this allergy season.

1. An Apple a Day…

The oldest medical cliché in the book – but it’s true.  A study of 1500 people found that eating apples lowers the incidence of allergy and asthma symptoms.

2. Eat Citrus Fruits Daily

Eating citrus regularly can decrease the symptoms of allergies and asthma.  This is likely due to the vitamin C and bioflavonoids that are abundant in citrus fruit.  Eat at least one citrus fruit daily – organic lemons, limes, oranges, tangerines, clementines, kumquats and grapefruits are good choices.

3. Eat Lots of Berries

Berries truly are a ‘superfruit.’  They are rich in vitamin C, bioflavonoids, anthocyandins and antioxidants.  A high intake of antioxidants has been shown to have a positive impact on allergy symptoms.  Eat one handful of blueberries, blackberries or raspberries daily to get the benefit from these sweet superfoods.

4. Determine Food Allergies and Avoid Them

Food allergies and sensitivities can cause a lot more than just digestive symptoms.  Consider having a food allergy test to determine your individual food reactions.  Or try the elimination diet with your Naturopathic Doctor to see how food allergies and sensitivities are impacting your allergies.

5. Eliminate Margarine From Your Diet

Margarine is high in poly-unsaturated omega-6 fatty acids which can result in inflammation in the body (the symptoms of allergy – runny nose, itchy red eyes – are due to inflammation of mucous membranes).

Adults and children with allergies should remove all margarine from their diet.  A 2003 study found that eating margarine led to more symptoms of wheezing and runny nose (allergic rhinitis) in children with allergies.

6. Try the Anti-Inflammatory Diet

There are foods that we eat that can decrease inflammation and there are other foods that can promote inflammation in our bodies.  The Anti-Inflammatory diet can teach you how to boost anti-inflammatory foods (like flax seed oil, citrus fruits and various vegetables) and decrease pro-inflammatory foods (like margarine, dairy products and red meat).

7. Increase Essential Fatty Acids

Essential fatty acids are the heavy-hitters of the natural anti-inflammatory world.  Omega 3 fatty acids found in flaxseed and cold water fish are the most effective in the treatment of allergy symptoms.  Increasing omega 3 fatty acids in your diet (or through use of supplements) results in decreased production of inflammatory chemicals and fewer allergy symptoms.

8. Quercetin

Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that is found in a wide variety of foods (including apples, citrus fruits, onions and buckwheat).  It is nature’s anti-histamine, reducing the release of histamine from mast cells.  It should be taken preventatively – year-round for chronic allergies and seasonally for seasonal allergies.

9. Stinging Nettles (Urtica dioica)

This local medicinal plant has a long history of use in the treatment of allergies.  It has been rigorously studied and has been shown to be as effective, or more effective, than popular allergy medications.  It is available as a tea or in freeze-dried extracts.  It should be taken daily throughout allergy season.

10. Acupuncture

Acupuncture can be a useful addition to the management of chronic or seasonal allergies.  Between 6-10 sessions are needed to tonify the detoxification systems of the body and balance the organ systems (skin, liver, kidneys, and adrenals) that are commonly involved in allergy symptoms.

Book an appointment with your Naturopathic Doctor now to customize your comprehensive plan for the upcoming allergy season.  It may turn out to be your best season yet!

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Fighting Back Against Sugar Addiction

3pm.  You hear a sweet voice in your head, calling you towards the snack machine or the fridge, urging you to indulge in a sugary treat.  Sound familiar?  You aren’t alone.

Sugar addiction is on the rise in North America and the impact it has on our health is anything but sweet.

The Bitter Truth about Sugar and Health

Sugar is an important biochemical that is involved in numerous processes in our bodies.  We need some sugar for survival (glucose is the main energy source for the brain).  However, our bodies are not equipped to handle the large quantity and poor quality of sugar that we currently ingest.

You may also be suffering from sugar-related illness and not realize it.  Symptoms associated with sugar addiction include:

  • Allergies

    Sugar has many negative effects in the body
  • Anxiety
  • Boils
  • Cancer
  • Canker sores
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Diabetes
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent colds and/or flu
  • Gas and/or bloating
  • Headaches
  • Hyperactivity
  • Immune suppression
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Mood swings
  • Obesity
  • PMS
  • Sugar cravings
  • Tooth decay
  • Yeast infections

Sugar Addiction

There is no doubt that sugar can be addictive.  Like any addiction people crave sugar, have withdrawal symptoms when they don’t have sugar and may feel better for a brief period of time after eating sugar.  Sugar feels good in the moment, but it can cause serious long term problems for your health.

Like other addictions, many people may not realize they have a problem with sugar.  The following questions may help you recognize if you, or someone you know, has a sugar addiction.

Sugar Addiction Questionnaire

Yes

No

Do you eat refined sugar (white sugar, candies, chocolate, baked goods) every day?

o

o

Do you find it difficult to go for more than one day without eating a sugar containing food or drink?

o

o

Are there always sugar containing foods in your home?

o

o

Do you find it difficult to have candy or other sweet foods in your home and not eat them? o

o

Do you experience cravings for sugar, coffee, chocolate, peanut butter or alcohol?

o

o

Have you ever hidden candy or other sweet foods around the house in order to eat them later?

o

o

Do you get fatigue, perspiration, irritability, depression, or anxiety if you go three or more hours without eating?

o

o

Do you eat something sweet after every meal?

o

o

Do you find it difficult to go more than one hour after waking up in the morning without eating?

o

o

Do you find it difficult to stop after eating one piece of candy or one bite of baked goods?

o

o

0-3 ‘yes’: Probably not sugar sensitive
4-6 ‘yes’: Sugar sensitive
7-10 ‘yes’: Definite sugar addiction

Now What? – How to Overcome a Sugar Addiction

There are many ways to go about battling an addiction.  Sugar addiction is no different.  Some schools of thought say you should quit cold turkey and never consume sugar again, others suggest cutting back slowly and allowing it back into your diet only in moderation.

My philosophy is a combination of those two schools.  You should quit sugar cold turkey, with proper nutritional support throughout the withdrawal phase, but you can have sugar again – provided it is done properly and in strict moderation.

The best way to beat a sugar addiction is to change the way you eat and think about food.  Learning how to eat a healthy diet composed of whole foods, incorporating regular exercise, and dietary supplements (as needed) is by far the best strategy to overcome a sugar addiction.

Curbing the Cravings

Here are some tips for curbing sugar cravings when they hit:

  1. Choose fruit – fruits are a fantastic snack to satisfy your sweet tooth.  Choose fruits that are lower on the glycemic index – that means they cause less of a blood sugar spike after eating (usually because they are higher in fiber and lower in sugar).  Examples include: apples, apricots, oranges, mango, dates, peaches, and pears.
  2. Drink More Water – We often confuse sensations of hunger and thirst.  When a craving for sugar hits you, try drinking a glass of water first.
  3. Exercise – Food cravings can be stopped in their tracks by engaging in some mild exercise.  The next time you get a craving, take a 10 minute walk.  You’ll benefit from the fresh air, the exercise and your cravings will disappear.
  4. Eat Nuts – Nuts are one of nature’s perfect snacks.  They are high in protein and healthy fats.  They are also filling and can quickly wipe out hunger and food cravings.  Try pecans, walnuts, almonds and brazil nuts.  Nut butters are also a delicious way to include nuts in your diet.  Try some nut butter spread on a piece of spelt bread or a Ryvita cracker.
  5. Nutritional Supplements – There are a number of supplements that can support you as you conquer your sugar addiction.  Supplements that help control blood sugar – such as chromium, B vitamins (especially biotin and niacin), vanadium, amino acids, alpha lipoic acid and gymnema sylvestre (an Ayurvedic plant medicine) can all help manage cravings.  Supplements should only be used under the care of a qualified Naturopathic Doctor.
  6. Acupuncture – the use of ear acupuncture or body acupuncture in the treatment of addiction has a long history of success.  A series of 5-10 acupuncture sessions can assist the body in detoxifying while decreasing cravings, relieving stress and anxiety and promoting overall wellness.

Conquering a sugar addiction is not easy.  But with appropriate support it can be done.

For more reading on this topic, Dr. Nancy Appleton’s book “Lick the Sugar Habit” is a great read with more information on sugar addiction.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Ten Steps to A Better Night’s Sleep, Naturally.

 

1. Get up and go to bed at the same time every day, even on weekends

Sleep is a habit.  By consistently going to bed and getting up at the same time every day we condition our body to follow a regular pattern of sleep.  This allows our body’s internal clock, our “circadian rhythm”, to remain balanced and effectively initiate and maintain sleep.

2. Make your bedroom quiet, dark and cool

Studies have shown that sleeping in a cooler room is most conductive to sleep.  Our body temperature drops slightly during sleep and a cooler room helps the body temperature to drop more quickly and effectively.  Eliminate all sources of light in your bedroom – turn digital alarm clocks to face the wall and get dark window coverings to eliminate outside light.  Eliminating excess noise will minimize potential disruptions that might wake you from sleep.

computer insomnia3. Bedrooms are for sleeping and sex, not for work or television

The bedroom should be kept for sleeping and not used for televisions, computers, video gaming systems, phone calls or other stimulating gadgets that may disrupt sleep.  Go in the bedroom when it is time to sleep and leave the room when sleeping is done.

4. Avoid caffeine, alcohol and nicotine for 4-6 hours before bedtime

Caffeine is found in coffee, soda, green and black tea, energy drinks and chocolate.  It is a stimulant and can negatively impact sleep even if ingested six hours before bed.  And although an alcoholic “nightcap” might help you to initiate sleep it fragments the stages of sleep, decreases the quality of sleep and makes sleep more disrupted.

5. Don’t nap, or nap appropriately

The period of time that you are awake adds to something called “sleep drive”.  The longer we stay awake, the more we want to go to sleep.  By taking a nap we diminish this desire to sleep which may make it less likely that we will be able to easily sleep later.

However, some experts have suggested that napping at the appropriate time of day (between 1 and 4 pm, never between 5 and 8 pm) for an appropriate length of time (20 to 40 minutes) can improve overall sleep.

Aerobic exercise and meditation6. Exercise daily, but avoid exercising 4 hours before bedtime

Staying active is an excellent way to ensure a good night’s sleep.  However, exercising too close to bedtime may cause difficulties in getting to sleep as your body will still be revved up.

7. Develop a sleep ritual before bedtime

Parents have been doing this for children for generations.  Sleep rituals allow us to unwind and mentally prepare for going to sleep.  These rituals should include quiet activities such as reading, drinking a calming cup of tea, listening to relaxing music, writing in a journal, or taking a warm bath.

8.  If you are having trouble getting to sleep, don’t stay in bed or you will train yourself to have difficulties there

If you have difficulty initiating sleep don’t toss and turn in bed and try to force sleep to come (we’ve all tried this… and we all know it doesn’t work!).  As this activity is repeated, night after night, a situation is set up where we associate our bed with the anxiety of not being able to sleep.

If you are unable to fall asleep within 15 minutes, go to another quiet place and lie down until you feel ready to sleep, then return to your bedroom to sleep. Do not watch television or use the computer during this time.

9. Avoid eating or drinking for a few hours before bedtime

Heartburn or having to urinate frequently can be very disruptive to a good night’s sleep.  Avoid these issues by not eating or drinking for a few hours before bedtime.

10. Make sleep a priority.  Don’t sacrifice sleep to do daytime activities

Respect your body’s need to sleep!  Too often we allow our sleep time to be shortened when our daytime activities take longer than we expect.  Opportunities to engage in pleasurable activities – watching television, visiting with friends, playing on the internet, and other activities – will quickly cut into sleep time if we allow them to.  It is important to schedule your sleep time and keep to that schedule, no matter what may come up during the day.

Additional sleep resources:

BBC Documentary:  Ten Things You Need to Know About Sleep

National Sleep Foundation – http://www.sleepfoundation.org/

Disclaimer:

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Four Steps to Selecting Safe Baby Care Products

As parents we want to be sure we are making safe choices for our children.  With marketing claims like “natural”, “mild”, and “gentle” it can be hard to decide which products truly are safe for our little ones.  Every week three-quarters of children are exposed to allergens, neurotoxins, and harmful chemicals in their body care products.

By following the four steps listed you can be sure you are making the best choices for your family.

Step One – Simplify!  Use fewer products.

Most adults use as many as ten personal care products each day.  The number we use with our children can be just as high.  Diapers, wipes, body wash, shampoo, soap, lotions, bubble baths, diaper creams and more are applied to our babies’ skin each day.  Minimize the potential for chemical exposure by eliminating products that aren’t necessary.

Suggestions: Use warm water on a washable cloth to wipe baby’s bum after diaper changes.  Use one product as a shampoo/soap/body wash.  Don’t use bubble bath with young children.

Step Two – Less is More – Use products with fewer ingredients and no fragrance.

The fewer ingredients the more natural the product”.

It’s a general rule and in many cases it is true.  The longer the ingredient list the more preservatives, dyes, emollients and other chemicals the product contains.  There are exceptions to this rule of course, some botanical products use many different plant extracts in their formulas.  But a quick glance at the length of the product label can provide valuable information.

It is also important to choose products that are free of synthetic dyes and fragrances.  Synthetic dyes and fragrances are often composed of several harmful chemicals but due to product labeling laws do not need to be listed separately.  Avoid exposing your child to these chemicals by selecting products that are fragrance and dye free.

Step Three – Read Labels… and Know What Ingredients to Look For.

More important than the length of an ingredient list, knowing what ingredients to avoid is paramount to protecting your child from exposure to potentially harmful chemicals.  The following is a brief list of ingredients to avoid:

Benzyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol Skin irritants and potential neurotoxicity concerns
BHA Found in diaper cream.  Banned in other countries because it can cause skin depigmentation
Boric Acid and Sodium Borate Found in diaper cream.  Industry authorities caution against use on infant or damaged skin
2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3-Diol (or Bronopol) Found in baby wipes.  Allergen and irritant that can form cancer-causing contaminants
Ceteareth and PEG compounds Petrochemicals that may contain cancer-causing impurities
DMDM Hydantoin Allergen and irritant that can form cancer-causing contaminants
Dyes Some are linked to cancer and are banned outside the U.S.
Fragrance Allergens that may contain neurotoxic or hormone-disrupting chemicals
Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate Chemically similar to neurotoxic pesticides
Methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone Allergens with neurotoxic concerns
Oxybenzone Found in sunscreens.  In sunlight, can produce allergy- and cancer-causing chemicals
Parabens Hormone-disrupting chemicals with potential cancer concerns
Triethanolamine Allergen and irritant that can form cancer-causing contaminants
Triclosan Linked to thyroid disruption, produces toxic byproducts in tap water

Additionally, a 2009 study found formaldehyde or 1,4-dioxane in a large percentage of tested baby products.  Both formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane were found in 17 out of 28 tested products (61%).  Formaldehyde and 1,4-dioxane are known carcinogens; formaldehyde can also cause skin rashes in some children.  These chemicals are not listed on product labels because they are contaminants, not ingredients.

Formaldehyde contaminates personal care products when preservatives release formaldehyde over time in the container.  Common ingredients likely to cause formaldehyde contamination include: quaternium-15, DMDM hydantoin, imidazolidinyl urea and diazolidinyl urea.

1,4-dioxane is a byproduct of a chemical processing technique called ethoxylation.  Manufactures can easily remove the toxic byproduct, but are not required by law to do so.  Common ingredients likely to be contaminated with 1,4-dioxane include: PEG-100 stearate, sodium laureth sulfate, polyethylene and ceteareth-20.

Step Four – Make a List and Check It Twice.

Having a list of ingredients to avoid, and bringing it with you when selecting new baby care products is the easiest way to be sure you are making a healthy choice.

The Environmental Working Group has made this even simpler by providing parents with two phenomenal resources.  One is the Safety Guide to Children’s Personal Care Products which includes a printable pocket reference guide.

Skin Deep is also from the EWG and offers a searchable cosmetic safety database with toxicity ratings for thousands of individual products and brands.  It is an invaluable resource.  I recommend double checking any product on the Skin Deep website before purchasing it.

Making the best choices for your children doesn’t have to be difficult.  By utilizing the four steps highlighted in this article and accessing the resources offered by groups such as the Environmental Working Group, you can be confident you are using products that live up to the highest standards – your standards.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

References:

No More Toxic Tub.  March 2009.  Campaign for Safe Cosmetics.  Available at http://safecosmetics.org/downloads/NoMoreToxicTub_Mar09Report.pdf

Safety Guide to Children’s Personal Care Products. Environmental Working Group Report.  Available at http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com/special/parentsguide/summary.php

Parent’s Buying Guide: Safety Guide to Children’s Personal Care Products.  Environmental Working Group.  Available at http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com/special/parentsguide/index.php?bybrand=1

Ingredients to Avoid: Safety Guide to Children’s Personal Care Products. Environmental Working Group.  Available at http://www.cosmeticsdatabase.com/special/parentsguide/ingredients.php

Tea for Tots

Sharing the Joy of Tea with Kids

There are few topics that I like to talk about more than tea.  I love tea.  I love the flavour of tea, the diverse kinds of tea, the ritual of making tea and the warm, calm feeling that I get when I settle in with a cup of tea.  Tea is also one of my favourite ways of prescribing botanicals (plant based medicines) for adults and children alike.

While I would not recommend giving a child a cup of orange pekoe, chai or English breakfast tea (all of which contain caffeine!) there are an abundance of other kinds of tea that are perfect for children.

Preparing Tea for Kids

Making a cup of tea for a child is very similar to preparing it for an adult, with a couple of simple adjustments.

  • Children often prefer a weaker tea.  Adults should steep tea for between 4 and 6 minutes (depending on the type of tea and personal preference).  For children steep the tea for only 2 to 4 minutes.  If the tea is too strong, add extra water to dilute the strength (this is also a good way to quickly cool the tea!).
  • The temperature of tea to be served to a child should be considerably cooler.  I suggest serving children’s tea chilled, at room temperature or lukewarm (the same temperature used for baby bottles or formula – around 26-36oC).

Selecting Teas for Your Child

Selecting tea is part of the pleasure of drinking tea.  You can have tea that calms you, tea that wakes you up, tea that soothes a sore throat or an upset tummy, or tea that just tastes good.  You can select tea for your children in much the same way.

Teas for Health

Anxiety – studies show that more and more children are experiencing anxiety, and at younger and younger ages.  If your child has anxiety associated with school, friends, separation or for any other reason try giving them a tea to help calm their nervous system.  Teas for anxiety include chamomile, oat straw, passionflower (for children over four), and skullcap (for children over six).  Prepare a cup of tea and enjoy it together in the evening or before stressful events.

Colic – even young babies can benefit from tea!  A tea made from fennel, chamomile or peppermint can be very helpful in relieving colic in infants.  A breastfeeding mother can drink the tea (1 cup three times per day) or the tea can be diluted and given to the infant with a medicine dropper (1 diluted tsp three times per day).

Constipation – use a flaxseed tea (1 teaspoon flaxseed in 1 litre of water, simmered for 15 minutes) to cook oatmeal.  Prepare the tea and then use the tea instead of water to prepare oatmeal for your child to eat.  Or add ¼ cup of flaxseed tea to 4 ounces of juice and give it to your child once daily.  Constipation should resolve within 24-48 hours.

Coughs – depending on the type of cough there are several options for teas to soothe a coughing child.  For a cough with sore throat, marshmallow root or slippery elm tea can be very soothing.  For cough with congestion, licorice or coltsfoot tea are both effective.
(Note: Do not use for more than 3 days in a row.  Licorice should not be used in children with high blood pressure).
Peppermint tea is a mild cough suppressant and can be used in the evenings to help children with a persistent cough to get some sleep.

Sambucus nigra berriesFever – To decrease chills and increase perspiration (which will shorten the duration and intensity of the fever) try a tea with any of the following ingredients (in equal parts): lemon balm, chamomile, peppermint, licorice and elder flower.  For a child over 2 years of age ½ cup of tea can be given up to four times daily for one day.  Serve this tea as hot as your child can tolerate.
Note: Do not use licorice in a child with high blood pressure.  Fevers are commonly a sign that the body is fighting a viral or bacterial infection.  If your child’s temperature exceeds 102F (38.9oC) consider contacting a qualified healthcare provider for further guidance.

Nausea – ginger tea is very effective in decreasing nausea, vomiting, upset stomach and for soothing the digestive tract.  Giving your child tea when they are nauseous or vomiting also provides much needed hydration.  Use ½ cup of ginger tea, three times per day for the first 24 hours of nausea.  Ginger tea is also very effective for motion sickness.  Try giving your child ginger tea as needed during car trips to treat motion sickness.

Teas for Taste

There are a great variety of herbal teas available that children love.  Try fruit based herbal teas as a delicious and low calorie alternative to fruit juice.  Many of the fruit based teas are delicious served cold as an iced tea.  Some of my family’s favourites are:

Hibiscus flowers give tea a bright pink colour kids love
  • Chocolate mint rooibos – a loose tea, naturally caffeine free and deliciously sweet.  Available at www.steepedandinfused.com.
  • Passion by Tazo tea – hibiscus flower, lemongrass, mango and passion fruit combine to make a sweet, pink-hued tea.  Fantastic as an iced tea.  Available at Starbucks stores or many grocery stores.
  • Raspberry Zinger, True Blueberry and Country Peach Passion – all by Celestial Seasonings are favourites of my 2 year old son.  Simple, sweet, fruity flavours are popular with young children and adults alike.

So go ahead and try serving tea to your child.  There is no reason why a tea party need only be pretend!   You may be surprised at how much your child enjoys the flavours and rituals of tea drinking.

Disclaimer:

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Resources:

Hoffman, David.  Medical Herbalism.  2003.
Zand, Janet.  Smart Medicine for a Healthier Child 2nd Ed.  2003.

Warming Socks

In my first year of Naturopathic medical school we learned a hydrotherapy technique that was lovingly referred to as “cold, wet socks”.  Sounds appealing doesn’t it?  Despite the name, the warming socks (as I prefer to call it) treatment is cheap, simple and effective.  And not nearly as unpleasant as the name would lead you to believe.

Why do Warming Socks?

Warming socks is a technique used to treat the common cold, influenza, sore throats, sinus infections, upper respiratory tract infections, headaches, head and chest congestion.

The treatment works by stimulating the body’s natural defences.  Warming socks is a type of “heating compress” – a hydrotherapy technique that causes the body to increase blood circulation in order to heat up the cold, wet socks.

This increase in blood circulation helps to relieve congestion and stimulates greater action of the immune system so that it is better able to fight the virus or bacteria causing the illness.

This treatment can also have a sedating effect, and many people report sleeping much better during the treatment.

It is best to start the warming socks treatment on the first day of an illness and repeat it for three nights in a row.  It is most effective as part of an integrated treatment plan including rest, hydration, proper nutrition and immune-boosting botanicals or supplements.

How to do Warming Socks

Equipment

One pair of thin cotton socks

One pair of thick wool socks

Sink or bucket filled with very cold (or iced) water

Tub or bucket filled with very warm water

A warm bed

Procedure

Step 1: Get ready for bed

Step 2: Put cotton socks in a sink of very cold, or iced, water.  Soak for a minute to saturate the socks then wring them out so that they do not drip.

Step 3: Place your bare feet into a tub or bucket of very warm water.
Soak your feet as long as you want, but make sure the water stays warm and so do your feet.

Step 4: Dry your feet with a towel and put the wet cotton socks on your feet.

Step 5: Immediately pull the dry wool socks over the wet socks.  You want the wool socks to completely cover the cotton socks.

Step 6: Go to bed right away.  Make sure your feet stay warm.

In the morning your feet will be warm and dry.  Symptoms of your cold and head or chest congestion will be diminished or gone.

Repeat the warming socks treatment for three nights in a row.  It can be used on adults and children but people with chronic conditions or compromised immune systems should consult with a Naturopathic Doctor before starting the warming socks treatment.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

10 Things You Need to Know About Vitamin D

The importance of Vitamin D to health can not be underestimated.  It is the only vitamin that our body makes from exposure to sunlight.  Learn 10 important things about the “sunshine vitamin” and discover the impact Vitamin D can have on your health.

1. Vitamin D is made from sunlight

Vitamin D SunriseVitamin D is often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin” because our skin produces vitamin D from the sun’s ultraviolet light (UVB).  Our skin can make enough vitamin D in 30 minutes with just our face, hands and feet exposed.  Full body exposure for 15 minutes can produce between 10 000 – 20 000IU (international units) of vitamin D3.  However, many factors influence our body’s ability to produce vitamin D: complexion, use of sunscreen, cloud cover, smog, time of day, latitude and season.

Individuals with darker complexions make less vitamin D than fair-skinned people.  Studies estimate that half of all women of African descent living in northern latitudes are vitamin D deficient.

Sunscreen use is important for the prevention of skin cancer but it has the unfortunate effect of blocking vitamin D production by blocking UVB rays from reaching our skin.

Cloud cover can reduce UVB energy by 50%, shade reduces it by 60%.  UVB rays do not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors does not promote vitamin D production.

2. Vitamin D deficiency is a major concern during Canadian autumns and winters

Latitude has a lot to do with vitamin D status.  Due to our northern latitude the majority of Canadians have insufficient vitamin D levels during the fall and winter months.  One study demonstrated that in Canada from November through February UVB rays aren’t strong enough for our bodies to produce enough vitamin D.

Vitamin D stores in our bodies are quickly depleted during the early autumn months leading to insufficient levels during the late autumn and winter.  Vitamin D is stored in the blood for a few weeks and in fat tissue for a few months.

The average vitamin D level in late winter for American and Canadians is approximately 15-18ng/ml – levels below 20ng/ml are considered seriously deficient.

3. Vitamin D can help prevent Influenza and the Common Cold

Pediatric Naturopathic MedicineEach year more studies are showing a relationship between low vitamin D levels and incidence of colds, influenza and other respiratory tract infections.

People with higher vitamin D levels experience fewer respiratory illnesses and when they do get sick the illness is milder and shorter.  The Public Health Agency of Canada is currently investigating the role of vitamin D in the protection against season influenza and the H1N1 (swine flu) strain.

Vitamin D levels in your blood are at their lowest point during flu season.  Your body uses vitamin D to make antimicrobial peptides – the body’s natural antibiotics.  When vitamin D is deficient you make fewer peptides and are more vulnerable to illness.

Infants and children are a population where respiratory tract infections can have serious health implications.  Infants and children with lower levels of vitamin D are more susceptible to viral infections.

Vitamin D supplementation may be used to prevent or treat influenza.  To treat influenza larger doses of vitamin D3 may be needed.  It is best to consult with a Naturopathic Doctor if you are considering taking high doses of vitamin D as it can be toxic in high doses.

4. Vitamin D may prevent Cancer

You might not know it, but the connection between vitamin D status and cancer is well established in the scientific community.  Adequate levels of vitamin D have been shown to decrease the risk of developing over 16 different types of cancer including breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, colon, non-Hodgkins lymphoma and lung cancer. It is also an important part of integrative cancer treatment protocols.

A study by Dr. W. Grant, vitamin D expert, found that about 30 percent of all cancer deaths (2 million worldwide) could be prevented each year with higher levels of vitamin D.

Vitamin D can protect against cancer in several ways, including:

  • Increased self-destruction (apoptosis) of mutated cells
  • Reduced spread (metastasis) and reproduction (proliferation) of cancer cells
  • Increased differentiation of cells (cancer cells often lack differentiation)
  • Reduced growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, which is a step in the transition of dormant tumors turning cancerous

Other studies have estimated that you can decrease your risk of developing cancer by more than half by optimizing vitamin D levels.

5. Vitamin D is essential for bone health

Vitamin D is necessary for healthy bonesVitamin D deficiency results in childhood rickets and in osteomalacia (under-mineralized bone) in adults.  Without sufficient vitamin D bones become thin, brittle or misshapen.

Osteoporosis is a very common disease in North America.  It is characterized by fragile bones that significantly increase the risk of fracture.  Long term vitamin D insufficiency is associated with the development of osteoporosis.  Supplementing calcium and vitamin D can help protect adults from developing osteoporosis.  Vitamin D is necessary to allow the body to absorb calcium, either from dietary or supplemental sources.  Vitamin D also lowers the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis.

6. Vitamin D can decrease the risk of Auto-Immune diseases

Vitamin D is one hard working vitamin!  Not only can it decrease the risk of cancer, common cold, influenza and osteoporosis, but it can also decrease the risk of developing several auto-immune diseases.  Conditions such as autism, type I diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis all have been correlated with low levels of vitamin D.

One auto-immune condition has been studied extensively with relation to vitamin D status.  Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-immune disease that occurs almost exclusively in extreme latitudes and rarely near the equator.  In MS the immune system attacks the body’s own cells as “foreign”, causes vision changes and muscle weakness.  Adequate vitamin D levels may decrease the incidence of MS.  It is also an important integrative treatment for people with MS.

7. Vitamin D is essential for children and breastfed infants

Levels of vitamin D in breast milk have been found to be lower than needed for proper growth and development in infants (breast milk contains about 25IU/litre).  Because of this finding breastfed infants are recommended to be supplemented with 400IU of vitamin D daily (formula is also supplemented with vitamin D).  Supplementing at this young age could have life-long benefits.

Older children and adolescents also benefit from vitamin D supplements.  The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests supplementing all children to ensure adequate vitamin D levels.

8. Vitamin D can help prevent Type I and Type II Diabetes

More obese adults are deficient in vitamin D than same-age adults with normal weights.   A large percentage of adults with type II diabetes are also obese.  60% of people with type II diabetes have inadequate levels of vitamin D in their blood.  If you are obese, supplementing with vitamin D may help decrease your risk of developing type II diabetes.  If you already have type II diabetes supplementing with vitamin D can help improve insulin sensitivity.

Scientific studies have also established a link between type I diabetes and vitamin D levels.  Deficient levels of vitamin D are frequently found in patients diagnosed with type I diabetes and some research supports supplementation of vitamin D to decrease the risk of type I diabetes.  Children supplemented with vitamin D were also found to be less likely to develop type I diabetes.

9. Vitamin D levels can be tested – and should be!

The only way to determine the correct dose of vitamin D for you to take is to get your blood levels tested.  There are currently 2 different vitamin D tests available.  The best one is 25-hydroxyvitamin D.  This is a better marker of overall vitamin D status than 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D levels should be tested for three reasons.

  1. Vitamin D requirements are different for everyone. Depending on your age, colour of your skin, weight, and latitude of the town you live in, you could need anywhere from 400IU to over 10 000IU per day!
  2. Vitamin D can be toxic in excessive doses. Vitamin D accumulates in fat tissues where it is stored for a few months.  Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood), dehydration and tissue calcification.  Blood tests showing levels of greater than 200nmol/L of vitamin D are toxic.  It is very difficult to reach this level through sunlight exposure or nutritional sources of vitamin D.  Toxicity has been seen with long term supplementation of excessive levels of vitamin D.  Having your blood levels tested will ensure you are not taking excessive dosages of vitamin D.
  3. Vitamin D insufficiency is often asymptomatic. It is possible to have low levels of vitamin D in your body and not be aware of it.  The only way to know you have optimal levels of vitamin D is to test for it.

Vitamin D Levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D)

Deficient Insufficient Optimal Cancer therapy Excess
<25ng/ml <35ng/ml 50-65ng/ml 65-90ng/ml >100ng/ml
<20nmol/L <40-80nmol/L 80-120nmol/L 120-160nmol/L >200nmol/L

10. Not all Vitamin D supplements are created equal

gel cap skyThere are two types of vitamin D available; Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).  Only Vitamin D3 should be used for supplementation.  Vitamin D2 is a synthetic form of Vitamin D and does not impact vitamin D stores in our bodies in the way Vitamin D3 does.  Vitamin D3 is the natural form, the same form our bodies create from sun exposure.

Vitamin D3 is better absorbed in a liquid form.  Several companies make liquid Vitamin D3.

Food sources of Vitamin D3 (fortified milk, fish, cod liver oil, egg yolk, mushrooms) are often insufficient to maintain optimal levels of Vitamin D3.  Especially during the winter months in Canada, supplementation is necessary.

As of 2012, the conventional RDAs (recommended daily allowances) in Canada are only:

  • 400 IU for infants and children
  • 600 IU for adolescents and adults aged 9-70
  • 800 IU for adults over 70
  • 600 IU for pregnant and breastfeeding women

These levels are completely inadequate for maintaining optimal health, especially in the autumn and winter months in Canada.  The only way to determine an adequate (and safe) dosage of Vitamin D is with a blood test.  However, general guidelines from the scientific literature suggest a dosage of:

Vitamin D3 Dosage Guidelines

35IUs of Vitamin D3 per pound of body weight

For a child weighing 40 pounds, a dosage of approximately 1400 IU would be reasonable and for a 160 pound adult the dose would be approximately 5600 IU’s.  This dosage is for a fair skinned healthy young adult.  It is a guideline only and does not suggest that all adults and children should be taking these doses.

Conclusion

Achieving adequate levels of vitamin D is important!  Reduce your risk of cancer, influenza, respiratory tract infections, diabetes, auto-immune diseases and improve your bone health and overall health with just one vitamin supplement daily.

Photo courtesy of Jamie Amodeo. www.flickr.com/jamieamodeo

Photo Credit: ellesmere FNC via Compfight cc

Resources:

Aloia JF, Ni-Ng M.  Re: epidemic influenza and vitamin D.  Epidemiol Infect.  2007 Oct;135(7):1095-6; author reply 1097-8.

Aloia JF, Patel M, Dimaano R, Li-Ng M, et al.  Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.  Am J Clin Nutr.  2008 Jun;87(6): 1952-8.

Autier P, Gandini S.  Vitamin D Supplementation and Total Mortality: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.  Arch Intern Med.  2007 Sep 10;167(16):1730-7.

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, et al.  Epidemic influenza and vitamin D.  Epidemiol Infect.  2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.

Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E.  On the epidemiology of influenza.  Virol J.  2008 Feb 25;5:29.

Ginde AA, et al.  Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  Arch Intern Med.  2009 Feb 23;169(4):384-90.

Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the United States due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation, Cancer, 2002b;94:1867-75

Grant WB.  Geographic variation of prostate cancer mortality rates in the USA; implications for prostate cancer risk related to vitamin D; Int. J. Cancer, 2004 Sep 1;111(3):470-1

Grant WB. Lower vitamin-D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance may explain some differences in cancer survival rates.  J Natl Med Assoc.  2006 Mar;98(3):357-64.

Gordon CM, Feldman HA, Sinclair L, et al.  Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Healthy Infants and Toddlers.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.  2008;162[6]:505-512.

Health Canada, Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/vitamin/vita-d-eng.php

Holick MF.  Calcium and Vitamin D.  Diagnostics and Therapeutics.  Clin Lab Med.  2000 Sep;20(3):569-90

Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006

Mar;81(3):353-73

Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunana A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM.  Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study.  Lancet.  2001;358:1500-3.

Ingraham BA, Bragdon B, Nohe A.  Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer.  Curr Med Res Opin.  2008;24:139-49.

Laaksi I, et al.  An association of serum vitamin D concentrations <40nmol/L with acute respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men.  Am J Clin. Nutr.  2007 Sep;86(3):714-7.

Mayo Clinic Information Sheets: www.mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-d/NS_patient-vitamind”>vitaminD

Dr. Mercola website: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2004/03/31/cancer-sunlight.aspx

Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, et al.  Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study.  Arthritis Rheum.  2004;50:72-7.

Munger KL, Levin Ll, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A.  Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis.  JAMA.  2006 Dec 20;296(23):2832-8.

Robsahm TE, Tretli S, Dahlback A, Moan J.  Vitamin D(3) from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway).  Cancer Causes Control.  2004;15:149-58.

Wagner CL, Greer FR: American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding: American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition.  Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents.  Pediatrics 2008;122:1142-52.

Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF.  Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin.  J Clin Endocrinol Metabl.  1988;67:373-8.

Zella JB, DeLuca HF.  Vitamin D and autoimmune diabetes.  J Cell Biochem.  2003;88:216-22