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Tea for Fever in Children

 

Fever is a natural defence mechanism that our body uses to fight off viral and bacterial infections.  Increasing the body’s temperature allows our immune system to function optimally and makes it difficult for viruses and bacteria to replicate.

In an adult the level of fever generally corresponds to the severity of the illness causing it.  This is not necessarily the case in children.  In a newborn the body’s temperature control mechanisms are not yet well developed.  As a result signs other than fever (poor appetite, lethargy, irritability, nausea and vomiting) may be earlier indicators of an infection than fever.

Often the best treatment for a fever is NOT to decrease the fever (which is performing an important function in fighting off infection), but instead to optimize the fever with herbal diaphoretics.  Diaphoretics temporarily raise the body temperature, activate the immune system, encourage sweating (which then brings down body temperature), improve circulation, and minimize the symptoms of colds and influenza including sore muscles, chills, congestion, and sore throat.

Fever often leads to dehydration, which makes tea an especially effective treatment because it will not only help you to manage the fever but it will also supply much-needed hydration.

Very high fevers (generally above 103F/ 39.4oC in an adult, above 102F/ 38.8oC in a child, and above 101F/ 38.3oC in an infant) should be treated with appropriate medications (such as children’s acetaminophen or ibuprofen) to decrease fever while using tea as a supportive treatment.  Do not give aspirin to a child with a fever.  Aspirin use in children with viral infections has been linked to development of a serious liver disease known as Reye’s syndrome.

In some cases a feverish child may experience a febrile seizure.  These occur in a very small percentage of children.  They do not appear to be related to the severity of the fever or to the rate at which the temperature rose.  About 50% of children to experience one febrile seizure will go on to have another one.  If your child has a febrile seizure ensure that you have your child examine by a doctor to rule out any underlying conditions or causes.

There are several herbal teas that can be used safely in children with a fever.  These herbs can also be used by adults.  Children should be dosed according to their age.  One teaspoon every 3-4 hours for children under one year of age, 2 teaspoons every 3-4 hours for children 1-2 years of age and children over 2 years of age can have 1/4 cup every 3-4 hours.  Adults can consume one cup every 3-4 hours.

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Ginger (Zingiber officinalis)
Bayberry (Myrica cerifera) Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
Lime blossom (Tilia europa) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Remember – a fever is a sign that the immune system is working.  Hydration and herbal teas are often enough to help a child (or adult!) through the symptoms of a fever.  Always monitor the fever and use medications when necessary.  When in doubt, consult a Naturopathic Doctor or Medical Doctor for help.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Elderberry – the Flu Fighting Fruit

Elderberry has been getting a lot of respect in the media in the past year, but it has long been revered by Naturopathic Doctors and herbalists as a potent immune booster and medicine for the prevention and treatment of influenza.

What is Elderberry?

Sambucus nigra berries

Elderberry, or Sambucus nigra is one species of elder that is grown primarily in Europe and western Asia.  It is a shrub or small tree that has small black berries.   The leaves, twigs, branches, seeds, roots and unripe berries are toxic due to the presence of a cyanogenic glycoside.  The ripe berries are safe to eat (once cooked) and are used to make syrups, liquors and medicines.

Elderberry and Influenza

Multiple studies have been published in the past decade that support the use of elderberry to prevent the flu, treat symptoms of the flu and to decrease duration and severity of the flu.

A study published in the scientific journal, Phytochemistry (2009 Jul;70(10):1255-61) compared elderberry to Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) and Amantadine – two pharmaceutical drugs used in the treatment of influenza, including H1N1 (“swine flu”).  The researchers found that elderberry inhibited H1N1 infection in people by binding to H1N1, blocking the entry of the virus into cells and preventing infection.

An older study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine compared the use of elderberry to placebo and found that elderberry decreased the symptoms of influenza (including fever) within 2 days and achieved a cure of influenza in 2 days in 90% of the group receiving elderberry, compared to 6 days with placebo.  The most interesting thing about this study is that it was looking at Influenza type B – a type of influenza that Tamiflu and Amantadine are not effective in treating.

Elderberry has other distinct advantages over Tamiflu and Amantadine.  The use of prescription Tamiflu and Amantadine is limited by the potential for side effects.  Common side effects of these drugs include insomnia, restlessness and anxiety.  No side effects of medicinal elderberry have been reported in clinical studies in adults and children.*

*Consumption of raw and unripe berries, seeds, and other plant parts can cause nausea, vomiting or severe diarrhea.

How to Use Elderberry for InfluenzaElderberry Flu Fighter

The best way for most people to take elderberry is in a syrup form.  The syrup that I recommend is Sambucol.  Dosage is individualized based on age and severity of symptoms (whether it is used for prevention or treatment of influenza).

Start Sambucol within 12-24 hours of onset of symptoms for fastest results.  It is unclear whether elderberry is safe in pregnancy.  Discuss with your Naturopathic Doctor whether you should use elderberry during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Other Treatments for Influenza

There are a number of natural treatments for influenza.  Bed rest, warming socks, vitamin D, vitamin C, zinc, Echinacea, Ginseng, Andrographis, Astragalus, Goldenseal, Larch arabinogalactans, homeopathic belladonna and eupatorium, and other natural therapies all have been used successfully in the management of influenza symptoms and may be combined with Elderberry in certain situations.

The best advice if you are feeling the first signs of the flu (fever, aches, chills, fatigue, headache, coughing and sore throat)is to rest, take Elderberry and consult with a Naturopathic Doctor for individualized advice.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Resources

Barak V, Halperin T, Kalickman I.  The effect of Sambucol, a black elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines.  Eur Cytokine Netw.  2001 Apr-Jun;12(2):290-6.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.  Elderberry monograph.  Accessed November 5, 2010. http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/home.aspx?cs=&s=ND

Roschek B Jr, Fink RC, McMichael MD, Li D, Alberte RS.  Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1N1 infection in vitro.  Phytochemistry 2009 Jul; Vol 70(10): 1255-61.

Shokrzadeh M, Saeedi Saravi SS.  The chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Sambucus ebulus: A review.  J Medicinal Plants Res Jan 2010; Vol 4(2): 95-103.

Zakay-Rones Z, Varsano N, Zlotnik M, Manor O, Regev L, Schlesigner M, Mumcuolgu M.  Inhibition of several strains of influenza virus in vitro and reduction of symptoms by an elderberry extract (Sambucus nigra L.) during an outbreak of influenza B Panama.  J Altern Complement Med.  1995 Winter;1(4):361-9.

Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J.  Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.  J Int Med Res.  2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):132-40.

Tea for Tots

Sharing the Joy of Tea with Kids

There are few topics that I like to talk about more than tea.  I love tea.  I love the flavour of tea, the diverse kinds of tea, the ritual of making tea and the warm, calm feeling that I get when I settle in with a cup of tea.  Tea is also one of my favourite ways of prescribing botanicals (plant based medicines) for adults and children alike.

While I would not recommend giving a child a cup of orange pekoe, chai or English breakfast tea (all of which contain caffeine!) there are an abundance of other kinds of tea that are perfect for children.

Preparing Tea for Kids

Making a cup of tea for a child is very similar to preparing it for an adult, with a couple of simple adjustments.

  • Children often prefer a weaker tea.  Adults should steep tea for between 4 and 6 minutes (depending on the type of tea and personal preference).  For children steep the tea for only 2 to 4 minutes.  If the tea is too strong, add extra water to dilute the strength (this is also a good way to quickly cool the tea!).
  • The temperature of tea to be served to a child should be considerably cooler.  I suggest serving children’s tea chilled, at room temperature or lukewarm (the same temperature used for baby bottles or formula – around 26-36oC).

Selecting Teas for Your Child

Selecting tea is part of the pleasure of drinking tea.  You can have tea that calms you, tea that wakes you up, tea that soothes a sore throat or an upset tummy, or tea that just tastes good.  You can select tea for your children in much the same way.

Teas for Health

Anxiety – studies show that more and more children are experiencing anxiety, and at younger and younger ages.  If your child has anxiety associated with school, friends, separation or for any other reason try giving them a tea to help calm their nervous system.  Teas for anxiety include chamomile, oat straw, passionflower (for children over four), and skullcap (for children over six).  Prepare a cup of tea and enjoy it together in the evening or before stressful events.

Colic – even young babies can benefit from tea!  A tea made from fennel, chamomile or peppermint can be very helpful in relieving colic in infants.  A breastfeeding mother can drink the tea (1 cup three times per day) or the tea can be diluted and given to the infant with a medicine dropper (1 diluted tsp three times per day).

Constipation – use a flaxseed tea (1 teaspoon flaxseed in 1 litre of water, simmered for 15 minutes) to cook oatmeal.  Prepare the tea and then use the tea instead of water to prepare oatmeal for your child to eat.  Or add ¼ cup of flaxseed tea to 4 ounces of juice and give it to your child once daily.  Constipation should resolve within 24-48 hours.

Coughs – depending on the type of cough there are several options for teas to soothe a coughing child.  For a cough with sore throat, marshmallow root or slippery elm tea can be very soothing.  For cough with congestion, licorice or coltsfoot tea are both effective.
(Note: Do not use for more than 3 days in a row.  Licorice should not be used in children with high blood pressure).
Peppermint tea is a mild cough suppressant and can be used in the evenings to help children with a persistent cough to get some sleep.

Sambucus nigra berriesFever – To decrease chills and increase perspiration (which will shorten the duration and intensity of the fever) try a tea with any of the following ingredients (in equal parts): lemon balm, chamomile, peppermint, licorice and elder flower.  For a child over 2 years of age ½ cup of tea can be given up to four times daily for one day.  Serve this tea as hot as your child can tolerate.
Note: Do not use licorice in a child with high blood pressure.  Fevers are commonly a sign that the body is fighting a viral or bacterial infection.  If your child’s temperature exceeds 102F (38.9oC) consider contacting a qualified healthcare provider for further guidance.

Nausea – ginger tea is very effective in decreasing nausea, vomiting, upset stomach and for soothing the digestive tract.  Giving your child tea when they are nauseous or vomiting also provides much needed hydration.  Use ½ cup of ginger tea, three times per day for the first 24 hours of nausea.  Ginger tea is also very effective for motion sickness.  Try giving your child ginger tea as needed during car trips to treat motion sickness.

Teas for Taste

There are a great variety of herbal teas available that children love.  Try fruit based herbal teas as a delicious and low calorie alternative to fruit juice.  Many of the fruit based teas are delicious served cold as an iced tea.  Some of my family’s favourites are:

Hibiscus flowers give tea a bright pink colour kids love
  • Chocolate mint rooibos – a loose tea, naturally caffeine free and deliciously sweet.  Available at www.steepedandinfused.com.
  • Passion by Tazo tea – hibiscus flower, lemongrass, mango and passion fruit combine to make a sweet, pink-hued tea.  Fantastic as an iced tea.  Available at Starbucks stores or many grocery stores.
  • Raspberry Zinger, True Blueberry and Country Peach Passion – all by Celestial Seasonings are favourites of my 2 year old son.  Simple, sweet, fruity flavours are popular with young children and adults alike.

So go ahead and try serving tea to your child.  There is no reason why a tea party need only be pretend!   You may be surprised at how much your child enjoys the flavours and rituals of tea drinking.

Disclaimer:

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

Resources:

Hoffman, David.  Medical Herbalism.  2003.
Zand, Janet.  Smart Medicine for a Healthier Child 2nd Ed.  2003.

Warming Socks

In my first year of Naturopathic medical school we learned a hydrotherapy technique that was lovingly referred to as “cold, wet socks”.  Sounds appealing doesn’t it?  Despite the name, the warming socks (as I prefer to call it) treatment is cheap, simple and effective.  And not nearly as unpleasant as the name would lead you to believe.

Why do Warming Socks?

Warming socks is a technique used to treat the common cold, influenza, sore throats, sinus infections, upper respiratory tract infections, headaches, head and chest congestion.

The treatment works by stimulating the body’s natural defences.  Warming socks is a type of “heating compress” – a hydrotherapy technique that causes the body to increase blood circulation in order to heat up the cold, wet socks.

This increase in blood circulation helps to relieve congestion and stimulates greater action of the immune system so that it is better able to fight the virus or bacteria causing the illness.

This treatment can also have a sedating effect, and many people report sleeping much better during the treatment.

It is best to start the warming socks treatment on the first day of an illness and repeat it for three nights in a row.  It is most effective as part of an integrated treatment plan including rest, hydration, proper nutrition and immune-boosting botanicals or supplements.

How to do Warming Socks

Equipment

One pair of thin cotton socks

One pair of thick wool socks

Sink or bucket filled with very cold (or iced) water

Tub or bucket filled with very warm water

A warm bed

Procedure

Step 1: Get ready for bed

Step 2: Put cotton socks in a sink of very cold, or iced, water.  Soak for a minute to saturate the socks then wring them out so that they do not drip.

Step 3: Place your bare feet into a tub or bucket of very warm water.
Soak your feet as long as you want, but make sure the water stays warm and so do your feet.

Step 4: Dry your feet with a towel and put the wet cotton socks on your feet.

Step 5: Immediately pull the dry wool socks over the wet socks.  You want the wool socks to completely cover the cotton socks.

Step 6: Go to bed right away.  Make sure your feet stay warm.

In the morning your feet will be warm and dry.  Symptoms of your cold and head or chest congestion will be diminished or gone.

Repeat the warming socks treatment for three nights in a row.  It can be used on adults and children but people with chronic conditions or compromised immune systems should consult with a Naturopathic Doctor before starting the warming socks treatment.

Disclaimer

The advice provided in this article is for informational purposes only.  It is meant to augment and not replace consultation with a licensed health care provider.  Consultation with a Naturopathic Doctor or other primary care provider is recommended for anyone suffering from a health problem.

10 Things You Need to Know About Vitamin D

The importance of Vitamin D to health can not be underestimated.  It is the only vitamin that our body makes from exposure to sunlight.  Learn 10 important things about the “sunshine vitamin” and discover the impact Vitamin D can have on your health.

1. Vitamin D is made from sunlight

Vitamin D SunriseVitamin D is often referred to as the “sunshine vitamin” because our skin produces vitamin D from the sun’s ultraviolet light (UVB).  Our skin can make enough vitamin D in 30 minutes with just our face, hands and feet exposed.  Full body exposure for 15 minutes can produce between 10 000 – 20 000IU (international units) of vitamin D3.  However, many factors influence our body’s ability to produce vitamin D: complexion, use of sunscreen, cloud cover, smog, time of day, latitude and season.

Individuals with darker complexions make less vitamin D than fair-skinned people.  Studies estimate that half of all women of African descent living in northern latitudes are vitamin D deficient.

Sunscreen use is important for the prevention of skin cancer but it has the unfortunate effect of blocking vitamin D production by blocking UVB rays from reaching our skin.

Cloud cover can reduce UVB energy by 50%, shade reduces it by 60%.  UVB rays do not penetrate glass, so exposure to sunshine indoors does not promote vitamin D production.

2. Vitamin D deficiency is a major concern during Canadian autumns and winters

Latitude has a lot to do with vitamin D status.  Due to our northern latitude the majority of Canadians have insufficient vitamin D levels during the fall and winter months.  One study demonstrated that in Canada from November through February UVB rays aren’t strong enough for our bodies to produce enough vitamin D.

Vitamin D stores in our bodies are quickly depleted during the early autumn months leading to insufficient levels during the late autumn and winter.  Vitamin D is stored in the blood for a few weeks and in fat tissue for a few months.

The average vitamin D level in late winter for American and Canadians is approximately 15-18ng/ml – levels below 20ng/ml are considered seriously deficient.

3. Vitamin D can help prevent Influenza and the Common Cold

Pediatric Naturopathic MedicineEach year more studies are showing a relationship between low vitamin D levels and incidence of colds, influenza and other respiratory tract infections.

People with higher vitamin D levels experience fewer respiratory illnesses and when they do get sick the illness is milder and shorter.  The Public Health Agency of Canada is currently investigating the role of vitamin D in the protection against season influenza and the H1N1 (swine flu) strain.

Vitamin D levels in your blood are at their lowest point during flu season.  Your body uses vitamin D to make antimicrobial peptides – the body’s natural antibiotics.  When vitamin D is deficient you make fewer peptides and are more vulnerable to illness.

Infants and children are a population where respiratory tract infections can have serious health implications.  Infants and children with lower levels of vitamin D are more susceptible to viral infections.

Vitamin D supplementation may be used to prevent or treat influenza.  To treat influenza larger doses of vitamin D3 may be needed.  It is best to consult with a Naturopathic Doctor if you are considering taking high doses of vitamin D as it can be toxic in high doses.

4. Vitamin D may prevent Cancer

You might not know it, but the connection between vitamin D status and cancer is well established in the scientific community.  Adequate levels of vitamin D have been shown to decrease the risk of developing over 16 different types of cancer including breast, ovarian, prostate, pancreatic, colon, non-Hodgkins lymphoma and lung cancer. It is also an important part of integrative cancer treatment protocols.

A study by Dr. W. Grant, vitamin D expert, found that about 30 percent of all cancer deaths (2 million worldwide) could be prevented each year with higher levels of vitamin D.

Vitamin D can protect against cancer in several ways, including:

  • Increased self-destruction (apoptosis) of mutated cells
  • Reduced spread (metastasis) and reproduction (proliferation) of cancer cells
  • Increased differentiation of cells (cancer cells often lack differentiation)
  • Reduced growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, which is a step in the transition of dormant tumors turning cancerous

Other studies have estimated that you can decrease your risk of developing cancer by more than half by optimizing vitamin D levels.

5. Vitamin D is essential for bone health

Vitamin D is necessary for healthy bonesVitamin D deficiency results in childhood rickets and in osteomalacia (under-mineralized bone) in adults.  Without sufficient vitamin D bones become thin, brittle or misshapen.

Osteoporosis is a very common disease in North America.  It is characterized by fragile bones that significantly increase the risk of fracture.  Long term vitamin D insufficiency is associated with the development of osteoporosis.  Supplementing calcium and vitamin D can help protect adults from developing osteoporosis.  Vitamin D is necessary to allow the body to absorb calcium, either from dietary or supplemental sources.  Vitamin D also lowers the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis.

6. Vitamin D can decrease the risk of Auto-Immune diseases

Vitamin D is one hard working vitamin!  Not only can it decrease the risk of cancer, common cold, influenza and osteoporosis, but it can also decrease the risk of developing several auto-immune diseases.  Conditions such as autism, type I diabetes mellitus, schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis all have been correlated with low levels of vitamin D.

One auto-immune condition has been studied extensively with relation to vitamin D status.  Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic auto-immune disease that occurs almost exclusively in extreme latitudes and rarely near the equator.  In MS the immune system attacks the body’s own cells as “foreign”, causes vision changes and muscle weakness.  Adequate vitamin D levels may decrease the incidence of MS.  It is also an important integrative treatment for people with MS.

7. Vitamin D is essential for children and breastfed infants

Levels of vitamin D in breast milk have been found to be lower than needed for proper growth and development in infants (breast milk contains about 25IU/litre).  Because of this finding breastfed infants are recommended to be supplemented with 400IU of vitamin D daily (formula is also supplemented with vitamin D).  Supplementing at this young age could have life-long benefits.

Older children and adolescents also benefit from vitamin D supplements.  The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests supplementing all children to ensure adequate vitamin D levels.

8. Vitamin D can help prevent Type I and Type II Diabetes

More obese adults are deficient in vitamin D than same-age adults with normal weights.   A large percentage of adults with type II diabetes are also obese.  60% of people with type II diabetes have inadequate levels of vitamin D in their blood.  If you are obese, supplementing with vitamin D may help decrease your risk of developing type II diabetes.  If you already have type II diabetes supplementing with vitamin D can help improve insulin sensitivity.

Scientific studies have also established a link between type I diabetes and vitamin D levels.  Deficient levels of vitamin D are frequently found in patients diagnosed with type I diabetes and some research supports supplementation of vitamin D to decrease the risk of type I diabetes.  Children supplemented with vitamin D were also found to be less likely to develop type I diabetes.

9. Vitamin D levels can be tested – and should be!

The only way to determine the correct dose of vitamin D for you to take is to get your blood levels tested.  There are currently 2 different vitamin D tests available.  The best one is 25-hydroxyvitamin D.  This is a better marker of overall vitamin D status than 1,25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Vitamin D levels should be tested for three reasons.

  1. Vitamin D requirements are different for everyone. Depending on your age, colour of your skin, weight, and latitude of the town you live in, you could need anywhere from 400IU to over 10 000IU per day!
  2. Vitamin D can be toxic in excessive doses. Vitamin D accumulates in fat tissues where it is stored for a few months.  Vitamin D overdose causes hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood), dehydration and tissue calcification.  Blood tests showing levels of greater than 200nmol/L of vitamin D are toxic.  It is very difficult to reach this level through sunlight exposure or nutritional sources of vitamin D.  Toxicity has been seen with long term supplementation of excessive levels of vitamin D.  Having your blood levels tested will ensure you are not taking excessive dosages of vitamin D.
  3. Vitamin D insufficiency is often asymptomatic. It is possible to have low levels of vitamin D in your body and not be aware of it.  The only way to know you have optimal levels of vitamin D is to test for it.

Vitamin D Levels (25-hydroxyvitamin D)

Deficient Insufficient Optimal Cancer therapy Excess
<25ng/ml <35ng/ml 50-65ng/ml 65-90ng/ml >100ng/ml
<20nmol/L <40-80nmol/L 80-120nmol/L 120-160nmol/L >200nmol/L

10. Not all Vitamin D supplements are created equal

gel cap skyThere are two types of vitamin D available; Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol).  Only Vitamin D3 should be used for supplementation.  Vitamin D2 is a synthetic form of Vitamin D and does not impact vitamin D stores in our bodies in the way Vitamin D3 does.  Vitamin D3 is the natural form, the same form our bodies create from sun exposure.

Vitamin D3 is better absorbed in a liquid form.  Several companies make liquid Vitamin D3.

Food sources of Vitamin D3 (fortified milk, fish, cod liver oil, egg yolk, mushrooms) are often insufficient to maintain optimal levels of Vitamin D3.  Especially during the winter months in Canada, supplementation is necessary.

As of 2012, the conventional RDAs (recommended daily allowances) in Canada are only:

  • 400 IU for infants and children
  • 600 IU for adolescents and adults aged 9-70
  • 800 IU for adults over 70
  • 600 IU for pregnant and breastfeeding women

These levels are completely inadequate for maintaining optimal health, especially in the autumn and winter months in Canada.  The only way to determine an adequate (and safe) dosage of Vitamin D is with a blood test.  However, general guidelines from the scientific literature suggest a dosage of:

Vitamin D3 Dosage Guidelines

35IUs of Vitamin D3 per pound of body weight

For a child weighing 40 pounds, a dosage of approximately 1400 IU would be reasonable and for a 160 pound adult the dose would be approximately 5600 IU’s.  This dosage is for a fair skinned healthy young adult.  It is a guideline only and does not suggest that all adults and children should be taking these doses.

Conclusion

Achieving adequate levels of vitamin D is important!  Reduce your risk of cancer, influenza, respiratory tract infections, diabetes, auto-immune diseases and improve your bone health and overall health with just one vitamin supplement daily.

Photo courtesy of Jamie Amodeo. www.flickr.com/jamieamodeo

Photo Credit: ellesmere FNC via Compfight cc

Resources:

Aloia JF, Ni-Ng M.  Re: epidemic influenza and vitamin D.  Epidemiol Infect.  2007 Oct;135(7):1095-6; author reply 1097-8.

Aloia JF, Patel M, Dimaano R, Li-Ng M, et al.  Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.  Am J Clin Nutr.  2008 Jun;87(6): 1952-8.

Autier P, Gandini S.  Vitamin D Supplementation and Total Mortality: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.  Arch Intern Med.  2007 Sep 10;167(16):1730-7.

Cannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, et al.  Epidemic influenza and vitamin D.  Epidemiol Infect.  2006 Dec;134(6):1129-40.

Cannell JJ, Zasloff M, Garland CF, Scragg R, Giovannucci E.  On the epidemiology of influenza.  Virol J.  2008 Feb 25;5:29.

Ginde AA, et al.  Association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and upper respiratory tract infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.  Arch Intern Med.  2009 Feb 23;169(4):384-90.

Grant WB. An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the United States due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation, Cancer, 2002b;94:1867-75

Grant WB.  Geographic variation of prostate cancer mortality rates in the USA; implications for prostate cancer risk related to vitamin D; Int. J. Cancer, 2004 Sep 1;111(3):470-1

Grant WB. Lower vitamin-D production from solar ultraviolet-B irradiance may explain some differences in cancer survival rates.  J Natl Med Assoc.  2006 Mar;98(3):357-64.

Gordon CM, Feldman HA, Sinclair L, et al.  Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Healthy Infants and Toddlers.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med.  2008;162[6]:505-512.

Health Canada, Vitamin D and Calcium: Updated Dietary Reference Intakes: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/vitamin/vita-d-eng.php

Holick MF.  Calcium and Vitamin D.  Diagnostics and Therapeutics.  Clin Lab Med.  2000 Sep;20(3):569-90

Holick MF. High prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and implications for health. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006

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Hypponen E, Laara E, Reunana A, Jarvelin MR, Virtanen SM.  Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study.  Lancet.  2001;358:1500-3.

Ingraham BA, Bragdon B, Nohe A.  Molecular basis of the potential of vitamin D to prevent cancer.  Curr Med Res Opin.  2008;24:139-49.

Laaksi I, et al.  An association of serum vitamin D concentrations <40nmol/L with acute respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men.  Am J Clin. Nutr.  2007 Sep;86(3):714-7.

Mayo Clinic Information Sheets: www.mayoclinic.com/health/vitamin-d/NS_patient-vitamind”>vitaminD

Dr. Mercola website: http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2004/03/31/cancer-sunlight.aspx

Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, et al.  Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study.  Arthritis Rheum.  2004;50:72-7.

Munger KL, Levin Ll, Hollis BW, Howard NS, Ascherio A.  Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis.  JAMA.  2006 Dec 20;296(23):2832-8.

Robsahm TE, Tretli S, Dahlback A, Moan J.  Vitamin D(3) from sunlight may improve the prognosis of breast-, colon- and prostate cancer (Norway).  Cancer Causes Control.  2004;15:149-58.

Wagner CL, Greer FR: American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding: American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition.  Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents.  Pediatrics 2008;122:1142-52.

Webb AR, Kline L, Holick MF.  Influence of season and latitude on the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3: exposure to winter sunlight in Boston and Edmonton will not promote vitamin D3 synthesis in human skin.  J Clin Endocrinol Metabl.  1988;67:373-8.

Zella JB, DeLuca HF.  Vitamin D and autoimmune diabetes.  J Cell Biochem.  2003;88:216-22